Manuel I of PortugalFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2009)
16th century painting of Manuel I.
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Reign 25 October 1495 – 13 December 1521
Coronation 27 October 1495 in Alcácer do Sal
Predecessor John II
Successor John III
Consort Isabella, Princess of Asturias
Maria of Aragon
Eleanor of Austria
Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal and Asturias
John III of Portugal
Isabella, Holy Roman Empress
Beatrice, Duchess of Savoy
Infante Louis, Duke of Beja
Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Guarda and Trancoso
Henry, King of Portugal
Infante Edward, Duke of Guimarães
Infanta Maria, Duchess of Viseu
House House of Aviz-Beja
Father Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu
Mother Infanta Beatrice of Portugal
Born (1469-05-31)31 May 1469
Alcochete, Kingdom of Portugal
Died 13 December 1521(1521-12-13) (aged 52)
Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
Burial Jerónimos Monastery, Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
Religion Roman Catholicism
Manuel I (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐnuˈɛɫ]; Archaic Portuguese: Manoel I, English: Emmanuel I), the Fortunate (Port. o Venturoso), King of Portugal and the Algarves (Alcochete, 31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521 in Lisbon) was the son of Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, (1433–1470), by his wife, Infanta Beatrice of Portugal. His name is associated with a period of Portuguese civilization distinguished by significant achievements both in political affairs and the arts. In spite of its small size and population in comparison to the great land powers of Europe, it was able to acquire an overseas empire of vast proportions during Manuel's reign.
1 Early Life
2.1 Imperial Growth
2.2 Manueline Ordinations
2.3 Faithful King
3 Late Life
4 Marriages and descendants
7 See also
 Early Life
Saint Aleixo's Wedding of Manuel and Maria; Garcia Fernandes, 1541.Manuel's mother was the granddaughter of King John I of Portugal; his father, Prince Fernando, was the second surviving son of King Edward of Portugal, thus the younger brother of King Afonso V of Portugal. Manuel succeeded in 1495 his first cousin King John II of Portugal, who was also his brother-in-law, being married to Manuel's sister, Leonor.
Manuel grew up amidst conspiracies of the Portuguese upper nobility against King John II. He was aware of many people being killed and exiled. His older brother Diogo, Duke of Viseu, was stabbed to death in 1484 by the king himself.
Manuel thus had every reason to worry when he received a royal order in 1493 to present himself to the king, but his fears were groundless: John II wanted to name him heir to the throne, after the death of his son, Prince Afonso, and the failed attempts to legitimise Jorge, Duke of Coimbra, his illegitimate son. As a result of this stroke of luck he was nicknamed the Fortunate.
 Reign Imperial GrowthManuel would prove a worthy successor to his cousin John II, supporting the Portuguese exploration of the Atlantic Ocean and the development of Portuguese commerce. During his reign, the following was achieved:
1498 — Discovery of a maritime route to India by Vasco da Gama
1500 — Discovery of Brazil by Pedro Álvares Cabral
1505 — Appointment of Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of India
1503–1515 — Establishment of monopolies on maritime trade routes to the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf by Afonso de Albuquerque, an admiral, for the benefit of Portugal
All these events made Portugal rich on foreign trade while it formally established a vast overseas empire. Manuel used the wealth to build a number of royal buildings (in the Manueline style) and to attract scientists and artists to his court. Commercial treaties and diplomatic alliances were forged with China and the Persian Empire. The Pope received a monumental embassy from Portugal during his reign designed to draw attention to Portugal's newly-acquired riches to all of Europe.
The Family of King D. Manuel I at the Fons Vitae; Colijn de Coter, 1518. Manueline OrdinationsIn Manuel's reign, royal absolutism was the method of government. The Portuguese Cortes (the assembly of the kingdom) only met three times during his reign, always in Lisbon, the king's seat. He reformed the courts of justice and the municipal charters with the crown, modernizing taxes and the concepts of tributes and rights.
 Faithful KingManuel was a very religious man and invested a large amount of Portuguese income to sponsor missionaries to the new colonies, such as Francisco Álvares, and the construction of religious buildings, such as the Monastery of Jerónimos. Manuel also endeavoured to promote another crusade against the Turks.
His relationship with the Portuguese Jews started out well. At the outset of his reign, he released all the Jews who had been made captive during the reign of John II. Unfortunately for the Jews, he decided that he wanted to marry Infanta Isabella of Aragon, then heiress of the future united crown of Spain (widow of his nephew Prince Afonso). Ferdinand and Isabella had expelled the Jews in 1492, and would never marry their daughter to the king of a country that still tolerated their presence.
The Interment of D. Manuel from the Book of hours of D. Manuel; 1517-1551.In December 1496, it was decreed that any Jew who did not convert to Christianity would be expelled from the country. However, those expelled could only leave the country in ships specified by the king. When those who chose expulsion arrived at the port in Lisbon, they were met by clerics and soldiers who used force, coercion, and promises in order to baptize them and prevent them from leaving the country.
This period of time technically ended the presence of Jews in Portugal. Afterwards, all converted Jews and their descendants would be referred to as "New Christians", and they were given a grace period of thirty years in which no inquiries into their faith would be allowed; this was later extended to end in 1534.
A popular riot in Lisbon, in 1506, ended in the death of two thousand Jews; the leaders of the riot were executed by Manuel.
 Late LifeIsabella died in childbirth in 1498, putting a damper on Portuguese ambitions to rule in Spain, which various rulers had harbored since the reign of King Ferdinand I (1367–1383). Manuel and Isabella's young son Miguel was for a period the heir apparent of Castile and Aragon, but his death in 1500 ended these ambitions.
Manuel's next wife, Maria of Aragon, was his first wife's sister, but not the oldest surviving one. That was rather Joanna of Castile, who had issue.
In 1506 the Pope Julius II gave Manuel I a Golden Rose. Later in 1514 Pope Leo X also gave Manuel I a second Golden Rose. Manuel I became the first individual to receive more than one Golden Rose.
The Jerónimos Monastery in Lisbon houses Manuel's tomb. His son João succeeded him as king.
 Marriages and descendantsMain article: Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal
Negotiations for a marriage between Manuel and Elizabeth of York in 1485 were halted by the death of Richard III of England. He went on to marry three times. His first wife was Isabella of Aragon, princess of Spain and widow of the previous Prince of Portugal Afonso. Next he married another princess of Spain, Maria of Aragon (his first wife's sister), then Eleanor of Austria, a niece of his first two wives who married Francis I of France after Manuel's death.
Name Birth Death Age Notes
By Isabella of Asturias (2 October 1470 – 28 August 1498; married in 1497)
Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal 23 August 1498 19 July 1500 70001000000000000001 year, 7002330000000000000330 days Prince of Portugal, Prince of Asturias and heir to both Portugal and Spain.
By Maria of Aragon (19 June 1482 – 7 March 1517; married in 1501)
João, Prince of Portugal (John) 6 June 1502 11 June 1557 55 years Succeeded the throne as John III, King of Portugal.
Infanta Isabel (Elizabeth) 24 October 1503 1 May 1539 35 years Holy Roman Empress by marriage to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
Infanta Beatriz (Beatrice) 31 December 1504 8 January 1538 33 years Duchess of Savoy by marriage to Charles III, Duke of Savoy.
Infante Luís (Louis) 3 March 1506 27 November 1555 49 years Unmarried but had illegitimate descendants, one of them being António, Prior of Crato, a claimant of the throne of Portugal in 1580; see: Portuguese succession crisis of 1580.
Infante Fernando (Ferdinand) 5 June 1507 7 November 1534 62 years Duke of Guarda and Trancoso. Married Guiomar (Guyomare) Coutinho, 5th Countess of Marialva and 3rd Countess of Loulé (died 1534). No surviving issue.
Infante Afonso (Alphonse) 23 April 1509 21 April 1540 30 years Cardinal of the Kingdom.
Infanta Maria (Mary) 1513 1513 Days
Infante Henrique (Henry) 31 January 1512 31 January 1580 68 years Cardinal of the Kingdom who succeeded his grandnephew, King Sebastian (Manuel I's great-grandson), as Cardinal Henry, King of Portugal. His death triggered the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580.
Infante Duarte (Edward) 7 October 1515 20 September 1540 24 years Duke of Guimarães and great-grandfather of John IV of Portugal. Married Isabel of Braganza, daughter of Jaime, Duke of Braganza.
Infante António (Anthony) 9 September 1516 1516 Days
By Eleanor of Austria (15 November 1498 – 25 February 1558; married in 1518)
Infante Carlos (Charles) 18 February 1520 14 April 1521 70001000000000000001 year, 700155000000000000055 days
Infanta Maria (Mary) 18 June 1521 10 October 1577 56 years Unmarried
 Ancestry[show]Ancestors of Manuel I of Portugal
16. Peter I of Portugal (= 24)
8. John I of Portugal (= 12, 28)
17. Teresa Lourenço (= 25)
4. Edward of Portugal
18. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (= 26)
9. Philippa of Lancaster (= 13)
19. Blanche of Lancaster (= 27)
2. Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu
20. John I of Castile
10. Ferdinand I of Aragon
21. Eleanor of Aragon
5. Eleanor of Aragon
22. Sancho Alfonso, 1st Count of Alburquerque
11. Eleanor of Alburquerque
23. Beatrice of Portugal
1. Manuel I of Portugal
24. Peter I of Portugal (= 16)
12. John I of Portugal (= 8, 28)
25. Teresa Lourenço (= 17)
6. Infante John, Lord of Reguengos de Monsaraz
26. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (= 18)
13. Philippa of Lancaster (= 9)
27. Blanche of Lancaster (= 19)
3. Infanta Beatrice of Portugal
28. John I of Portugal (= 8, 12)
14. Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganza
29. Inês Pires Esteves
7. Isabella of Braganza
30. Nuno Álvares Pereira
15. Beatriz Pereira de Alvim
31. Leonor de Alvim
 References1.^ Arthur Benveniste. "500th Anniversary of the Forced Conversion of the Jews of Portugal." Address at Sephardic Temple Tifereth Israel, Los Angeles, October 1997
 See also Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Manuel I of Portugal
Manueline, an architectural style
Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal
Manuel I of Portugal
House of Aviz-Beja
Cadet branch of the House of Aviz
Born: 31 May 1469 Died: 13 December 1521
John II King of Portugal and the Algarves
1495–1521 Succeeded by
Afonso Prince of Portugal
1491–1495 Succeeded by
[show]v ·t ·eMonarchs of Portugal
Portuguese House of Burgundy (1139–1383) Afonso I ·Sancho I ·Afonso II ·Sancho II ·Afonso III ·Dinis I ·Afonso IV ·Pedro I ·Fernando I
House of Aviz (1385–1495) João I ·Duarte I ·Afonso V ·João II
House of Aviz-Beja (1495–1580) Manuel I ·João III ·Sebastião I ·Henrique I
Portuguese House of Habsburg (1581–1640) Filipe I ·Filipe II ·Filipe III
House of Braganza (1640–1853) João IV ·Afonso VI ·Pedro II ·João V ·José I ·Maria I with Pedro III ·João VI ·Pedro IV ·Maria II ·Miguel I ·Maria II with Fernando II
House of Braganza-Coburg (1853–1910) Pedro V ·Luís I ·Carlos I ·Manuel II
[show]v ·t ·eInfantes of Portugal
The generations indicate descent form Afonso I, and continues through the House of Aviz, the House of Habsburg through Isabella of Portugal, and the House of Braganza through Infanta Catherine, Duchess of Braganza.
1st generation Infante Henrique ·Sancho I ·Infante João
2nd generation Infante Raimundo ·Afonso II ·Infante Pedro, Count of Urgell ·Infante Fernando, Count of Flanders ·Infante Henrique
3rd generation Sancho II ·Afonso III ·Infante Fernando, Lord of Serpa ·Infante Vicente
4th generation Infante Roberto ·Infante Fernando ·Dinis I ·Infante Afonso, Lord of Portalegre ·Infante Vicente
5th generation Infante Afonso, Lord of Leiria ·Afonso IV
6th generation Infante Afonso ·Infante Dinis ·Peter I ·Infante João
7th generation Infante Luís ·Ferdinand I ·Infante Afonso ·Infante João, Duke of Valencia de Campos ·Infante Dinis, Lord of Cifuentes
8th generation Infante Pedro ·Infante Afonso ·Infante Afonso ·Edward I ·Infante Pedro, 1st Duke of Coimbra ·Infante Henrique, 1st Duke of Viseu ·Infante João, Lord of Reguengos de Monsaraz ·Infante Fernando, the Saint Prince
9th generation Infante Diogo, Constable of Portugal ·Infante João ·Peter V, King of Aragon ·Infante João, Prince of Antioch ·Afonso V ·Cardinal-Infante Jaime ·Infante Fernando, 2nd Duke of Viseu ·Infante Duarte
10th generation Infante João, 3rd Duke of Viseu ·Infante Diogo, 4th Duke of Viseu ·João, Prince of Portugal ·John II ·Infante Duarte ·Infante Diniz ·Infante Simião ·Infante Afonso ·Manuel I
11th generation Afonso, Prince of Portugal ·Infante João ·Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal and Asturias1 ·John III ·Infante Luís, 5th Duke of Beja ·Infante Fernando, Duke of Guarda and Trancoso ·Cardinal-Infante Afonso ·Henry, The Cardinal-King ·Infante Duarte, 4th Duke of Guimarães ·Infante António ·Infante Carlos
12th generation Afonso, Prince of Portugal ·Manuel, Prince of Portugal ·Filipe, Prince of Portugal ·Infante Dinis ·John Manuel, Prince of Portugal ·Infante António ·Infante Duarte, 5th Duke of Guimarães
13th generation Sebastian I ·Carlos, Prince of Portugal and Asturias2 ·Manuel, Prince Hereditary of Portugal3 ·Diogo Félix, Prince of Portugal and Asturias2 ·Philip II2
14th generation Philip III2 ·Infante Carlos2 ·Cardinal-Infante Fernando2 ·Infante Alfonso Mauricio2
15th generation Balthasar Charles, Prince of Portugal and Asturias2 ·Infante Francisco Fernando2 ·Teodósio, 1st Prince of Brazil ·Afonso VI ·Peter II
16th generation João, 3rd Prince of Brazil ·John V ·Infante Francisco, 7th Duke of Beja ·Infante António ·Infante Manuel, Count of Ourém2
17th generation Pedro, 5th Prince of Brazil ·Joseph I ·Infante Carlos ·Peter III ·Infante Alexandre
18th generation none
19th generation José, 8th Prince of Brazil ·Infante João Francisco ·John VI
20th generation Francisco António, 8th Prince of Beira ·Peter I of Brazil & IV of Portugal ·Miguel I ·Infante Pedro Carlos2 ·Infante Carlos José Antonio2
21st generation Miguel, 11th Prince of Beira ·João Carlos, 12th Prince of Beira ·Infante Miguel, 24th Duke of Braganza ·Infante Sebastian2
22nd generation Pedro V ·Luís I ·Infante João, 8th Duke of Beja ·Infante Fernando ·Infante Augusto, 3rd Duke of Coimbra ·Infante Leopoldo ·Infante Eugénio Maria ·Infante Miguel, 6th Duke of Viseu ·Infante Francisco José ·Infante Duarte Nuno, 25th Duke of Braganza
23rd generation Carlos I ·Afonso, Prince Royal and 3rd Duke of Porto ·Infante Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza ·Infante Miguel, Duke of Viseu ·Infante Henrique, Duke of Coimbra
24th generation Luís Filipe, Prince Royal ·Manuel II ·Infante Dinis, Duke of Porto ·Infante Afonso, Prince of Beira
1 also an infante of Castile and León, Aragon, Sicily and Naples ·2 also an infante of Spain ·3 claimant infante
Name Manuel 01 Of Portugal
Short description Portuguese monarch
Date of birth 31 May 1469
Place of birth Alcochete, Kingdom of Portugal
Date of death 13 December 1521
Place of death Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
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