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Manuel I

16th century painting of Manuel I.

King of Portugal and the Algarves

Reign 25 October 1495 – 13 December 1521

Coronation 27 October 1495 in Alcácer do Sal

Predecessor John II

Successor John III

Consort Isabella, Princess of Asturias

Maria of Aragon

Eleanor of Austria

among others...Issue

Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal and Asturias

John III of Portugal

Isabella, Holy Roman Empress

Beatrice, Duchess of Savoy

Infante Louis, Duke of Beja

Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Guarda and Trancoso

Cardinal-Infante Afonso

Henry, King of Portugal

Infante Edward, Duke of Guimarães

Infanta Maria, Duchess of Viseu

House House of Aviz-Beja

Father Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu

Mother Infanta Beatrice of Portugal

Born (1469-05-31)31 May 1469

Alcochete, Kingdom of Portugal

Died 13 December 1521(1521-12-13) (aged 52)

Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal

Burial Jerónimos Monastery, Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal

Religion Roman Catholicism

Manuel I (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐnuˈɛɫ]; Archaic Portuguese: Manoel I, English: Emmanuel I), the Fortunate (Port. o Venturoso), King of Portugal and the Algarves (Alcochete, 31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521 in Lisbon) was the son of Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, (1433–1470), by his wife, Infanta Beatrice of Portugal. His name is associated with a period of Portuguese civilization distinguished by significant achievements both in political affairs and the arts. In spite of its small size and population in comparison to the great land powers of Europe, it was able to acquire an overseas empire of vast proportions during Manuel's reign.

Contents [hide]

1 Early Life

2 Reign

2.1 Imperial Growth

2.2 Manueline Ordinations

2.3 Faithful King

2.3.1 Inquisition

3 Late Life

4 Marriages and descendants

5 Ancestry

6 References

7 See also

[edit] Early Life

Saint Aleixo's Wedding of Manuel and Maria; Garcia Fernandes, 1541.Manuel's mother was the granddaughter of King John I of Portugal; his father, Prince Fernando, was the second surviving son of King Edward of Portugal, thus the younger brother of King Afonso V of Portugal. Manuel succeeded in 1495 his first cousin King John II of Portugal, who was also his brother-in-law, being married to Manuel's sister, Leonor.

Manuel grew up amidst conspiracies of the Portuguese upper nobility against King John II. He was aware of many people being killed and exiled. His older brother Diogo, Duke of Viseu, was stabbed to death in 1484 by the king himself.

Manuel thus had every reason to worry when he received a royal order in 1493 to present himself to the king, but his fears were groundless: John II wanted to name him heir to the throne, after the death of his son, Prince Afonso, and the failed attempts to legitimise Jorge, Duke of Coimbra, his illegitimate son. As a result of this stroke of luck he was nicknamed the Fortunate.

[edit] Reign[edit] Imperial GrowthManuel would prove a worthy successor to his cousin John II, supporting the Portuguese exploration of the Atlantic Ocean and the development of Portuguese commerce. During his reign, the following was achieved:

1498 — Discovery of a maritime route to India by Vasco da Gama

1500 — Discovery of Brazil by Pedro Álvares Cabral

1505 — Appointment of Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of India

1503–1515 — Establishment of monopolies on maritime trade routes to the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf by Afonso de Albuquerque, an admiral, for the benefit of Portugal

All these events made Portugal rich on foreign trade while it formally established a vast overseas empire. Manuel used the wealth to build a number of royal buildings (in the Manueline style) and to attract scientists and artists to his court. Commercial treaties and diplomatic alliances were forged with China and the Persian Empire. The Pope received a monumental embassy from Portugal during his reign designed to draw attention to Portugal's newly-acquired riches to all of Europe.

The Family of King D. Manuel I at the Fons Vitae; Colijn de Coter, 1518.[edit] Manueline OrdinationsIn Manuel's reign, royal absolutism was the method of government. The Portuguese Cortes (the assembly of the kingdom) only met three times during his reign, always in Lisbon, the king's seat. He reformed the courts of justice and the municipal charters with the crown, modernizing taxes and the concepts of tributes and rights.

[edit] Faithful KingManuel was a very religious man and invested a large amount of Portuguese income to sponsor missionaries to the new colonies, such as Francisco Álvares, and the construction of religious buildings, such as the Monastery of Jerónimos. Manuel also endeavoured to promote another crusade against the Turks.

His relationship with the Portuguese Jews started out well. At the outset of his reign, he released all the Jews who had been made captive during the reign of John II. Unfortunately for the Jews, he decided that he wanted to marry Infanta Isabella of Aragon, then heiress of the future united crown of Spain (widow of his nephew Prince Afonso). Ferdinand and Isabella had expelled the Jews in 1492, and would never marry their daughter to the king of a country that still tolerated their presence.

[edit] Inquisition

The Interment of D. Manuel from the Book of hours of D. Manuel; 1517-1551.In December 1496, it was decreed that any Jew who did not convert to Christianity would be expelled from the country. However, those expelled could only leave the country in ships specified by the king. When those who chose expulsion arrived at the port in Lisbon, they were met by clerics and soldiers who used force, coercion, and promises in order to baptize them and prevent them from leaving the country.

This period of time technically ended the presence of Jews in Portugal. Afterwards, all converted Jews and their descendants would be referred to as "New Christians", and they were given a grace period of thirty years in which no inquiries into their faith would be allowed; this was later extended to end in 1534.[1]

A popular riot in Lisbon, in 1506, ended in the death of two thousand Jews; the leaders of the riot were executed by Manuel.

[edit] Late LifeIsabella died in childbirth in 1498, putting a damper on Portuguese ambitions to rule in Spain, which various rulers had harbored since the reign of King Ferdinand I (1367–1383). Manuel and Isabella's young son Miguel was for a period the heir apparent of Castile and Aragon, but his death in 1500 ended these ambitions.

Manuel's next wife, Maria of Aragon, was his first wife's sister, but not the oldest surviving one. That was rather Joanna of Castile, who had issue.

In 1506 the Pope Julius II gave Manuel I a Golden Rose. Later in 1514 Pope Leo X also gave Manuel I a second Golden Rose. Manuel I became the first individual to receive more than one Golden Rose.

The Jerónimos Monastery in Lisbon houses Manuel's tomb. His son João succeeded him as king.

[edit] Marriages and descendantsMain article: Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal

Negotiations for a marriage between Manuel and Elizabeth of York in 1485 were halted by the death of Richard III of England. He went on to marry three times. His first wife was Isabella of Aragon, princess of Spain and widow of the previous Prince of Portugal Afonso. Next he married another princess of Spain, Maria of Aragon (his first wife's sister), then Eleanor of Austria, a niece of his first two wives who married Francis I of France after Manuel's death.

Name Birth Death Age Notes

By Isabella of Asturias (2 October 1470 – 28 August 1498; married in 1497)

Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal 23 August 1498 19 July 1500 70001000000000000001 year, 7002330000000000000330 days Prince of Portugal, Prince of Asturias and heir to both Portugal and Spain.

By Maria of Aragon (19 June 1482 – 7 March 1517; married in 1501)

João, Prince of Portugal (John) 6 June 1502 11 June 1557 55 years Succeeded the throne as John III, King of Portugal.

Infanta Isabel (Elizabeth) 24 October 1503 1 May 1539 35 years Holy Roman Empress by marriage to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

Infanta Beatriz (Beatrice) 31 December 1504 8 January 1538 33 years Duchess of Savoy by marriage to Charles III, Duke of Savoy.

Infante Luís (Louis) 3 March 1506 27 November 1555 49 years Unmarried but had illegitimate descendants, one of them being António, Prior of Crato, a claimant of the throne of Portugal in 1580; see: Portuguese succession crisis of 1580.

Infante Fernando (Ferdinand) 5 June 1507 7 November 1534 62 years Duke of Guarda and Trancoso. Married Guiomar (Guyomare) Coutinho, 5th Countess of Marialva and 3rd Countess of Loulé (died 1534). No surviving issue.

Infante Afonso (Alphonse) 23 April 1509 21 April 1540 30 years Cardinal of the Kingdom.

Infanta Maria (Mary) 1513 1513 Days

Infante Henrique (Henry) 31 January 1512 31 January 1580 68 years Cardinal of the Kingdom who succeeded his grandnephew, King Sebastian (Manuel I's great-grandson), as Cardinal Henry, King of Portugal. His death triggered the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580.

Infante Duarte (Edward) 7 October 1515 20 September 1540 24 years Duke of Guimarães and great-grandfather of John IV of Portugal. Married Isabel of Braganza, daughter of Jaime, Duke of Braganza.

Infante António (Anthony) 9 September 1516 1516 Days

By Eleanor of Austria (15 November 1498 – 25 February 1558; married in 1518)

Infante Carlos (Charles) 18 February 1520 14 April 1521 70001000000000000001 year, 700155000000000000055 days

Infanta Maria (Mary) 18 June 1521 10 October 1577 56 years Unmarried

[edit] Ancestry[show]Ancestors of Manuel I of Portugal

16. Peter I of Portugal (= 24)

8. John I of Portugal (= 12, 28)

17. Teresa Lourenço (= 25)

4. Edward of Portugal

18. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (= 26)

9. Philippa of Lancaster (= 13)

19. Blanche of Lancaster (= 27)

2. Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu

20. John I of Castile

10. Ferdinand I of Aragon

21. Eleanor of Aragon

5. Eleanor of Aragon

22. Sancho Alfonso, 1st Count of Alburquerque

11. Eleanor of Alburquerque

23. Beatrice of Portugal

1. Manuel I of Portugal

24. Peter I of Portugal (= 16)

12. John I of Portugal (= 8, 28)

25. Teresa Lourenço (= 17)

6. Infante John, Lord of Reguengos de Monsaraz

26. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (= 18)

13. Philippa of Lancaster (= 9)

27. Blanche of Lancaster (= 19)

3. Infanta Beatrice of Portugal

28. John I of Portugal (= 8, 12)

14. Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganza

29. Inês Pires Esteves

7. Isabella of Braganza

30. Nuno Álvares Pereira

15. Beatriz Pereira de Alvim

31. Leonor de Alvim

[edit] References1.^ Arthur Benveniste. "500th Anniversary of the Forced Conversion of the Jews of Portugal." Address at Sephardic Temple Tifereth Israel, Los Angeles, October 1997

[edit] See also Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Manuel I of Portugal

Manueline, an architectural style

Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal

Manuel I of Portugal

House of Aviz-Beja

Cadet branch of the House of Aviz

Born: 31 May 1469 Died: 13 December 1521

Regnal titles

Preceded by

John II King of Portugal and the Algarves

1495–1521 Succeeded by

John III

Portuguese royalty

Preceded by

Afonso Prince of Portugal

1491–1495 Succeeded by


[show]v ·t ·eMonarchs of Portugal

Portuguese House of Burgundy (1139–1383) Afonso I ·Sancho I ·Afonso II ·Sancho II ·Afonso III ·Dinis I ·Afonso IV ·Pedro I ·Fernando I

House of Aviz (1385–1495) João I ·Duarte I ·Afonso V ·João II

House of Aviz-Beja (1495–1580) Manuel I ·João III ·Sebastião I ·Henrique I

Portuguese House of Habsburg (1581–1640) Filipe I ·Filipe II ·Filipe III

House of Braganza (1640–1853) João IV ·Afonso VI ·Pedro II ·João V ·José I ·Maria I with Pedro III ·João VI ·Pedro IV ·Maria II ·Miguel I ·Maria II with Fernando II

House of Braganza-Coburg (1853–1910) Pedro V ·Luís I ·Carlos I ·Manuel II

[show]v ·t ·eInfantes of Portugal

The generations indicate descent form Afonso I, and continues through the House of Aviz, the House of Habsburg through Isabella of Portugal, and the House of Braganza through Infanta Catherine, Duchess of Braganza.

1st generation Infante Henrique ·Sancho I ·Infante João

2nd generation Infante Raimundo ·Afonso II ·Infante Pedro, Count of Urgell ·Infante Fernando, Count of Flanders ·Infante Henrique

3rd generation Sancho II ·Afonso III ·Infante Fernando, Lord of Serpa ·Infante Vicente

4th generation Infante Roberto ·Infante Fernando ·Dinis I ·Infante Afonso, Lord of Portalegre ·Infante Vicente

5th generation Infante Afonso, Lord of Leiria ·Afonso IV

6th generation Infante Afonso ·Infante Dinis ·Peter I ·Infante João

7th generation Infante Luís ·Ferdinand I ·Infante Afonso ·Infante João, Duke of Valencia de Campos ·Infante Dinis, Lord of Cifuentes

8th generation Infante Pedro ·Infante Afonso ·Infante Afonso ·Edward I ·Infante Pedro, 1st Duke of Coimbra ·Infante Henrique, 1st Duke of Viseu ·Infante João, Lord of Reguengos de Monsaraz ·Infante Fernando, the Saint Prince

9th generation Infante Diogo, Constable of Portugal ·Infante João ·Peter V, King of Aragon ·Infante João, Prince of Antioch ·Afonso V ·Cardinal-Infante Jaime ·Infante Fernando, 2nd Duke of Viseu ·Infante Duarte

10th generation Infante João, 3rd Duke of Viseu ·Infante Diogo, 4th Duke of Viseu ·João, Prince of Portugal ·John II ·Infante Duarte ·Infante Diniz ·Infante Simião ·Infante Afonso ·Manuel I

11th generation Afonso, Prince of Portugal ·Infante João ·Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal and Asturias1 ·John III ·Infante Luís, 5th Duke of Beja ·Infante Fernando, Duke of Guarda and Trancoso ·Cardinal-Infante Afonso ·Henry, The Cardinal-King ·Infante Duarte, 4th Duke of Guimarães ·Infante António ·Infante Carlos

12th generation Afonso, Prince of Portugal ·Manuel, Prince of Portugal ·Filipe, Prince of Portugal ·Infante Dinis ·John Manuel, Prince of Portugal ·Infante António ·Infante Duarte, 5th Duke of Guimarães

13th generation Sebastian I ·Carlos, Prince of Portugal and Asturias2 ·Manuel, Prince Hereditary of Portugal3 ·Diogo Félix, Prince of Portugal and Asturias2 ·Philip II2

14th generation Philip III2 ·Infante Carlos2 ·Cardinal-Infante Fernando2 ·Infante Alfonso Mauricio2

15th generation Balthasar Charles, Prince of Portugal and Asturias2 ·Infante Francisco Fernando2 ·Teodósio, 1st Prince of Brazil ·Afonso VI ·Peter II

16th generation João, 3rd Prince of Brazil ·John V ·Infante Francisco, 7th Duke of Beja ·Infante António ·Infante Manuel, Count of Ourém2

17th generation Pedro, 5th Prince of Brazil ·Joseph I ·Infante Carlos ·Peter III ·Infante Alexandre

18th generation none

19th generation José, 8th Prince of Brazil ·Infante João Francisco ·John VI

20th generation Francisco António, 8th Prince of Beira ·Peter I of Brazil & IV of Portugal ·Miguel I ·Infante Pedro Carlos2 ·Infante Carlos José Antonio2

21st generation Miguel, 11th Prince of Beira ·João Carlos, 12th Prince of Beira ·Infante Miguel, 24th Duke of Braganza ·Infante Sebastian2

22nd generation Pedro V ·Luís I ·Infante João, 8th Duke of Beja ·Infante Fernando ·Infante Augusto, 3rd Duke of Coimbra ·Infante Leopoldo ·Infante Eugénio Maria ·Infante Miguel, 6th Duke of Viseu ·Infante Francisco José ·Infante Duarte Nuno, 25th Duke of Braganza

23rd generation Carlos I ·Afonso, Prince Royal and 3rd Duke of Porto ·Infante Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza ·Infante Miguel, Duke of Viseu ·Infante Henrique, Duke of Coimbra

24th generation Luís Filipe, Prince Royal ·Manuel II ·Infante Dinis, Duke of Porto ·Infante Afonso, Prince of Beira

1 also an infante of Castile and León, Aragon, Sicily and Naples ·2 also an infante of Spain ·3 claimant infante


Name Manuel 01 Of Portugal

Alternative names

Short description Portuguese monarch

Date of birth 31 May 1469

Place of birth Alcochete, Kingdom of Portugal

Date of death 13 December 1521

Place of death Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal

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