domingo, 10 de junho de 2012


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Para entrega en Argentina Para entrega en Perú Italian German Portuguese Nobility Central Allocutions Ambience Customs & Civilization Battle of Lepanto Chivalry History of Food and its Origins History of Western Civilization La Vendée Marie Antoinette Mary, Queen of the Crusades Nobility Book Nobility Book Launching Other Plinio Correa de Oliveira Polemics Revolution and Counter-Revolution Royal and Noble Saints Short Stories Spanish Reconquista Story of Don Juan of Austria The King of Italy sends an ultimatum to Blessed Pope Pius IX September 8, 2011 As the French military situation deteriorated [in the Franco-Prussian War], the government in Florence grew bolder. Near the end of August [1870], the Italian cabinet issued a circular letter to all the governments of Europe, in which it declared that the time had come to end the Roman Question. On the one hand, the document declared that it was time to fulfill the “legitimate aspirations” of the Italian people; on the other, that “the independence, the freedom, and the spiritual authority of the Pope,” had to be safeguarded. The greatest threat to Italy, in the cabinet’s opinion, was neither its own perfidy nor the revolutionaries’ violence, but—the Pontifical Zouaves! Two Papal Zouave brothers As one Zouave wrote of this remarkable message some years later, “the wolf told the story of the crimes of the lamb!” The circular ended with a list of guarantees to the Pope: in essence that he would retain control of the Eternal city and be independent in his dealings, and that neither he nor the current Papal State would be held to the restrictions on religious institutions and property in the Law of 1866…. Pope Pius’s and his secretary of state Antonelli’s response to this document, as expected, was scathing, but it was apparent that invasion was not far off. On September 6, Pius IX held a council of cardinals to discuss strategies. Three possible avenues were looked at. The Pope might accept the Italian guarantees, try to carry on the government of the Church as he could, and trust to the government’s honesty; he might leave Rome for Malta, Trieste, or Innsbruck, and carry on in exile; or, he might stay, make an armed protest, withdraw to the Vatican, refuse to recognize the new situation, and hope for better times. The last course was decided upon. Pius would refuse to surrender the city, would make only so much of an armed demonstration as was necessary to show the world that the Italians were guilty of aggression, and would stay in the city so long as he physically could. Victor Emmanuel, by this stage bothered by his conscience, wrote a long letter to Pius asking him to accept the occupation peacefully. The king mentioned his conscience repeatedly in the note, but the letter was read by a Pontiff who had spent most of his reign suffering from the king’s policies. Pius sent a curt refusal in reply. Without a declaration of war, on September 11 the Italian army invaded the Papal State. Pope Pius IX blesses his troops for the last time before the Capture of Rome. Charles A. Coulombe, The Pope’s Legion: The Multinational Fighting Force that Defended the Vatican (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008), pp. 151-152. Short Stories on Honor, Chivalry, and the World of Nobility—no. 107 Tagged as: Leadership, Monarchy, Pius IX, Short Stories, Zouaves Close Forgot password? Please put in your email: Send me my password! Close message Login This blog postAll blog postsSubscribe to this blog post's comments through... RSS Feed Subscribe via email Subscribe Subscribe to this blog's comments through... RSS Feed Subscribe via email Subscribe Follow the discussion Comments (4) Logging you in... Close Login to IntenseDebate Or create an account Username or Email: Password: Forgot login? OpenID Cancel Login Close Username or Email: Password: Lost your password? Cancel Login Close Login with your OpenID Or create an account using OpenID OpenID URL: Back Cancel Login Dashboard | Edit profile | Logout Logged in as Admin Options Disable comments for this page Save Settings Sort by: Date Rating Last Activity Loading comments... Login or signup now to comment. +1 Vote up Vote down RaymondDrake 44p · 39 weeks ago The Papal Zouaves were 19th century Crusaders. The Papal States were under attack by the revolutionary Garibaldi and his "red shirts," aided and abetted by the greedy King of Piedmont who wanted to be king of all Italy. Volunteers flocked to Rome from many countries, but above all from France where ultramontanes understood clearly what was happening. In the end, the Eternal City fell, but no one will ever be able to take away the glory of those who defended it. Reply 0 replies · active 39 weeks ago +1 Vote up Vote down jburn2354 13p · 39 weeks ago In my opinion, the difference in the expressions and physiognomies between Victor Emmanuel and the Zouave soldiers is telling: Victor Emmanuel: nobility at the service of self evidences haughtiness and defiance of good order; Zouaves: commonness at the service of The True Church evidences a soul both unpretentious and full of pure nobility. It would be interesting to have a translation of the latin script next to the statue, as well as a caption below the picture describing the scene. May America soon be led by true, self-sacrificing elites! I will be first in line behind them! Reply 1 reply · active 39 weeks ago +1 Vote up Vote down RaymondDrake 44p · 39 weeks ago I am no Latin expert, but I believe the phrase "Accipe sanctum gladium munus a Deo in quo deiicies adversarios populi mei Israel" translates into something like this: "Take this holy sword--a gift from God--under whose blade the adversaries of my people Israel fall." Reply +1 Vote up Vote down NobilityAdmin 73p · 38 weeks ago The Papal States were the temporal domain of the Popes. Revolutionary hatred of the Papacy and of the Catholic Church is why they were wrenched from the Popes in the 19th century. Nevertheless, they date back to Pepin the Short who in 756 gave the first lands, "the Donation of Pepin." In 781, Pepin's son and successor, Charlemagne, extended these papal lands. Reply 0 replies · active 38 weeks ago Post a new comment Enter text right here! 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