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Luiz Inácio Lula da SilvaLast updated 22 hours agoFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Lula" redirects here. For other uses, see Lula (disambiguation). Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva 35th President of Brazil In office 1 January 2003 – 31 December 2010 Vice President José Alencar Preceded by Fernando Henrique Cardoso Succeeded by Dilma Rousseff Leader of the Workers' Party In office 10 February 1980 – 15 November 1994 Preceded by Position established Succeeded by Rui Falcão Personal details Born (1945-10-27) 27 October 1945 (age 66) Caetés, Pernambuco, Brazil Nationality Brazilian Political party Workers' Party Spouse(s) Maria de Lurdes da Silva (Deceased) Marisa Letícia Rocco Casa (1974-present) Children Fábio Luís Lurian Cordeiro Luís Cláudio Marcos Cláudio (Adopted) Sandro Luís Residence São Bernardo do Campo Profession Automotive worker Union organizer Religion Roman Catholicism[1] Signature Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Portuguese: [luˈiz iˈnasju ˈlulɐ dɐ ˈsiwvɐ] ( listen); born 27 October 1945, known popularly as Lula,[2] served as the 35th President of Brazil, from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2010. A founding member of the Workers' Party (PT – Partido dos Trabalhadores), he ran for President three times unsuccessfully, first in the 1989 election, then again in 1994 and again in 1998. Lula achieved victory in the 2002 election, and was inaugurated as President on 1 January 2003. In the 2006 election he was re-elected for a second term as President, which ended on 31 December 2010.[3] He was succeeded by his former Chief of Staff, Dilma Rousseff. He is often regarded as the most popular politician in the history of Brazil and, at the time of his mandate, one of the most popular in the world.[4][5][6] Social programs like Bolsa Família and Fome Zero are hallmarks of his time in office. Lula played a prominent role in recent international relations developments, including the Nuclear program of Iran and global warming, and was described as "a man with audacious ambitions to alter the balance of power among nations."[7] He was featured in Time's The 100 Most Influential People in the World for 2010,[8] and has been called "the most successful politician of his time."[9] In October 2011, Lula—who was a smoker for 40 years[10]—was diagnosed with throat cancer and has already started his chemotherapy treatment. Since the cancer was found he has successfully recovered and has since announced a return to politics.[11] Contents [hide] 1 Early life 2 Education and work 3 Union career 4 Political career 4.1 Elections 5 Presidency 5.1 Political orientation 5.2 Social projects 5.3 Economy 5.4 Foreign policy 5.5 Corruption scandals and controversy 6 Post-presidency 7 Awards and recognition 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links [edit] Early lifeLuiz Inácio da Silva was born on 27 October 1945 (but registered with a date of birth of 6 October 1945) in Caetés (then a district of Garanhuns), located 155 miles (250 km) from Recife, capital of Pernambuco, a Brazilian state in the Northeast of Brazil. He was the seventh of eight children of Aristides Inácio da Silva and Eurídice Ferreira de Melo. Two weeks after Lula's birth, his father moved to Santos with Valdomira Ferreira de Góis, a cousin of Eurídice. In December 1952, when Lula was only 7 years old, his mother decided to move to São Paulo with her children to rejoin her husband. After a journey of thirteen days in a pau-de-arara (the open cargo area of a truck), they arrived in Guarujá and discovered that Aristides had formed a second family with Valdomira. Aristides' two families lived in the same house for some time, but they didn't get along very well, and four years later, Eurídice moved with her children to a small room in the back area of a bar in the city of São Paulo. After that, Lula rarely saw his father, who became an alcoholic and died in 1978. Lula was married twice. In 1969, he married Maria de Lourdes, who died of hepatitis in 1971, when she was pregnant with their first son, who also died.[12] Lula and Miriam Cordeiro had a daughter, Lurian, out of wedlock in 1974.[13] In 1974, Lula married Marisa, his current wife and at the time a widow, with whom he had three sons (he has also adopted Marisa's son from her first marriage). [edit] Education and workLula had little formal education. He did not learn to read until he was ten years old,[14] and quit school after the fourth grade in order to work to help his family. His working life began at age 12 as a shoeshiner and street vendor.[15] By age 14 he got his first formal job in a copper processing factory as a lathe operator. At age 19, he lost the little finger on his left hand in an accident while working as a press operator in an automobile parts factory.[14] After losing his finger he had to run to several hospitals before he received medical attention. This experience increased his interest in participating within the Workers' Union. Around that time, he became involved in union activities and held several important union posts.[15] Due to perceived incompatibility with the Brazilian military government and trade union activities, Lula's views moved further to the political left. [edit] Union careerInspired by his brother Frei Chico, Lula joined the labour movement when he worked at Indústrias Villares. He rose steadily in the ranks, and was elected in 1975, and reelected in 1978, president of the Steel Workers' Union of São Bernardo do Campo and Diadema. Both cities are located in the ABCD Region, home to most of Brazil's automobile manufacturing facilities (such as Ford, Volkswagen, Toyota, Mercedes-Benz and others) and are among the most industrialized in the country. In the late 1970s, when Brazil was under military rule, Lula helped organize union activities, including major strikes. Labour courts found the strikes to be illegal, and Lula was jailed for a month. Due to this, and like other people imprisoned for political activities under the military government, Lula was awarded a lifetime pension after the regime fell. [edit] Political career Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva speaking at the plenary of the Chamber of Deputies.On 10 February 1980, a group of academics, intellectuals, and union leaders, including Lula, founded the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT) or Workers' Party, a left-wing party with progressive ideas created in the midst of Brazil's military government. In 1982 he added the nickname Lula to his legal name.[2] In 1983 he helped found the Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT) union association. In 1984 PT and Lula joined the popular Diretas Já! (Direct [Elections] Now!) campaign, demanding a direct popular vote for the next Brazilian presidential election. According to the 1967 constitution, Presidents were at that time elected by both Houses of Congress in joint session, with representatives of all State Legislatures; this was widely recognised as a mere sham as, since the March 1964 coup d'état, each "elected" President had been a retired general chosen in a closed military caucus. Lula and the PT supported the public demand for a change in the electoral system. But the campaign was defeated by a vote in Congress that rejected an amendment calling direct elections for next year, and, in 1985, a civilian president, Tancredo Neves, was elected by the same indirect procedure, with Lula's support. Only four years later, as a direct result of Diretas Já! and after years of popular struggle, the 1989 elections were the first to elect a President by direct popular vote in 29 years. [edit] Elections Lula and the mayor of São Paulo, José Serra, meet in 2004. Lula defeated Serra in the 2002 presidential elections.Lula first ran for office in 1982, for the state government of São Paulo and lost. In the 1986 elections Lula won a seat in Congress with the most votes nationwide.[16] The Workers' Party helped write the country's post-military government Constitution, ensuring strong constitutional guarantees for workers' rights, but failed to achieve a proposed push for agrarian reform in the Constitutional text. Under Lula's leadership, the PT took a stance against the Constitution in the 1988 Constituent Assembly, grudgingly agreeing to sign the convened draft at a later stage. In 1989, still as a Congressman, Lula ran as the PT candidate in the first democratic elections for President since 1960. Lula and Leonel Brizola, two popular left-wing candidates, were expected to vie for first place. Lula was viewed as the most left-leaning of the two, advocating immediate land reform and a default on the external debt. However, a minor candidate, Fernando Collor de Mello, former governor of Alagoas, quickly amassed support among the nation's élite with a more business-friendly agenda. Collor became popular taking emphatic anti-corruption positions; he eventually beat Lula in the second round of the 1989 elections. In 1992, Collor resigned, under threat of impeachment for his alleged embezzlement of public money. Lula refused to run for re-election as a Congressman in 1990, busying himself with expanding the Workers' Party organizations around the country. As the political scene in the 1990s came under the sway of the Brazilian real monetary stabilization plan, which ended decades of rampant inflation, former Minister of Finance Fernando Henrique Cardoso (Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB)) defeated Lula in 1994 and again, by an even wider margin, in 1998. Before winning the presidency in 2002, Lula had been a strident union organizer known for his bushy beard and Che Guevara t-shirts.[17] In the 2002 campaign, Lula foreswore both his informal clothing style and his platform plank of linking the payment of Brazil's foreign debt to a prior thorough audit. This last point had worried economists, businessmen and banks, who feared that even a partial Brazilian default along with the existing Argentine default would have a massive ripple effect through the world economy. Embracing political consultant Duda Mendonça's advice to pursue a more media-friendly image, Lula became President after winning the second round of the 2002 election, held on 27 October, defeating the PSDB candidate José Serra. [edit] PresidencyLula served 2 terms as president and left office on January 1, 2011. During his farewell speech he said he felt an additional burden to prove that he could handle the presidency despite his humble beginnings. "If I failed, it would be the workers' class which would be failing; it would be this country's poor who would be proving they did not have what it takes to rule."[18] [edit] Political orientation Lula climbs the ramp leading to the Palácio do Planalto, with Vice President José Alencar, for the official ceremony marking the beginning of their second term, in 2007.Since the beginning of his political career to the present, Lula has changed some of his original ideas and moderated his positions. Instead of the drastic social changes he proposed in the past, his government chose a reformist line, passing new retirement, tax, labour and judicial legislation, and discussing university reform. Very few actual reforms have been implemented so far. Some wings of the Worker's Party have disagreed with the increasing moderation in focus since the late eighties and have left the party to form dissident wings such as the Workers' Cause Party, the United Socialist Workers' Party and, already during Lula`s presidency, the Socialism and Freedom Party. Alliances with conservative, right wing politicians, like former Presidents José Sarney and Fernando Collor, have been a cause of disappointment for some.[19] On 1 October 2006, Lula narrowly missed winning another term in the first round of elections. He faced a run-off on 29 October and won by a substantial margin.[20] In an interview published 26 August 2007, he said that he had no intention to seek a constitutional change so that he could run for a third consecutive term; he also said that he wanted "to reach the end of [his] term in a strong position in order to influence the succession."[21] [edit] Social projects Lula gives a speech in Diadema, in a public event launching further social assistance in the form of subsidized housing and Bolsa Família credits.Lula put social programs at the top of his agenda during the campaign and since being elected. Lula's leading program since very early on has been a campaign to eradicate hunger, following the lead of projects already put into practice by the Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration, but expanded within the new Fome Zero ("Zero Hunger").[22] This program brings together a series of programs with the goal to end hunger in Brazil: the creation of water cisterns in Brazil's semi-arid region of Sertão, plus actions to counter teenage pregnancy, to strengthen family agriculture, to distribute a minimum amount of cash to the poor, and many other measures. Brazil's largest assistance program, however, is Bolsa Família ("Family Allowance"), which is an expansion based upon the previous Bolsa Escola ("School Allowance"), which was conditional on school attendance, first introduced in the city of Campinas by then-mayor José Roberto Magalhães Teixeira. Not long thereafter, other municipalities and states adopted similar programs. President Fernando Henrique Cardoso later federalized the program in 2001. In 2003, Lula formed Bolsa Família by combining Bolsa Escola with additional allowances for food and kitchen gas. This was preceded by the creation of a new ministry – the Ministry of Social Development and Eradication of Hunger. This merger reduced administrative costs and bureaucratic complexity for both the families involved and the administration of the program. Fome Zero has a government budget and accepts donations from the private sector and international organizations The Bolsa Família program has been praised internationally for its achievements, despite internal criticism accusing it of having turned into an electoral weapon. Along with projects such as Fome Zero and Bolsa Família, the Lula administration flagship program is the Growth Acceleration Program (PAC). The PAC has a total budget of $646 billion reais (US $353 billion) by 2010, and was the Lula administration's main investment program. It is intended to strengthen Brazil's infrastructure, and consequently to stimulate the private sector and create more jobs. The social and urban infrastructure sector was scheduled to receive $84.2 billion reais (US $46 billion). [edit] Economy Lula on a visit to the Brazilian Aluminium Company. Construction site of the Santo Antonio Dam, with funding from the Growth Acceleration Program."Under Lula, Brazil became the world's eighth-largest economy, more than 20 million people rose out of acute poverty and Rio de Janeiro was awarded the 2016 Summer Olympics, the first time the Games will be held in South America." — The Washington Post, October 2010[17] As Lula gained strength in the run-up to the 2002 elections, the fear of drastic measures (and comparisons with Hugo Chávez of Venezuela) increased internal market speculation. This led to some market hysteria, contributing to a currency maxi-devaluation on the real, and a rise in Brazil's risk factor by more than 2000 base points.[23] In the beginning of his first term, Lula's chosen Minister of Finance was Antonio Palocci, a physician and former Trotskyist activist who had recanted his far left views while serving as the mayor of the sugarcane processing industry center of Ribeirão Preto, in the state of São Paulo. Lula also chose Henrique Meirelles of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party, a prominent market-oriented economist, as head of the Brazilian Central Bank. As a former CEO of the BankBoston he was well-known to the market.[24] Meirelles was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 2002 as a member of the opposing PSDB, but resigned as deputy to become Governor of the Central Bank.[24] Silva and his cabinet followed in part the lead of the previous government,[25] by renewing all agreements with the International Monetary Fund, which were signed by the time Argentina defaulted on its own deals in 2001. His government achieved a satisfactory primary budget surplus in the first two years, as required by the IMF agreement, exceeding the target for the third year. In late 2005, the government paid off its debt to the IMF in full, two years ahead of schedule.[26] Three years after the election, Lula had slowly but firmly gained the market's confidence, and sovereign risk indexes fell to around 250 points. The government's choice of inflation targeting kept the economy stable, and was complimented during the 2005 World Economic Forum in Davos. The Brazilian economy was generally not affected by the mensalão scandal.[27] In early 2006, however, Palocci had to resign as finance minister due to his involvement in an abuse of power scandal. Lula then appointed Guido Mantega, a member of the PT and an economist by profession, as finance minister. Mantega, a former Marxist who had written a Ph.D. thesis (in Sociology) on the history of economic ideas in Brazil from a left-wing viewpoint, is presently known for his criticism of high interest rates, something he claims satisfy banking interests. So far, however, Brazil's interest rates remain among the highest in the world. Mantega has been supportive of a higher employment by the state. Not long after the start of his second term, Lula, alongside his cabinet, announced the new Growth Acceleration Program (the Programa de Aceleração de Crescimento, or PAC, in Portuguese), an investment program to solve many of the problems that prevent the Brazilian economy from expanding more rapidly. The measures include investment in the creation and repair of roads and railways, simplification and reduction of taxation, and modernization on the country's energy production to avoid further shortages. The money promised to be spent in this Program is considered to be around R$ 500 billion (more than 250 billion dollars) over four years. Part of the measures still depend on approval by Congress. Prior to taking office, Lula had been a critic of privatization policies. In his government, however, his administration has created public-private partnership concessions for seven federal roadways.[28] After decades as the largest foreign debtor among emerging economies, Brazil became a net creditor for the first time in January 2008.[29] By mid-2008, both Fitch ratings and S&P had elevated the classification of Brazilian debt from speculative to investment grade. Banks have had record profit in Lula's government.[30] The Lula Administration's economic policies also helped to significantly raise living standards, with the percentage of Brazilians belonging to the consumerist middle class rising from 37% to 50% of the population. [edit] Foreign policyMain article: Foreign relations of Brazil BRIC leaders in 2010 – Dmitry Medvedev, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Hu Jintao and Manmohan Singh. President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva with President of Mexico Felipe Calderón during an official ceremony in Mexico City on August 6, 2007. President Barack Obama greets President Lula in the Oval Office, March 2009.According to The Economist of 2 March 2006, Lula has a pragmatic foreign policy, seeing himself as a negotiator, not an ideologue. As a result, he has befriended both Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez and former U.S. President George W. Bush.[citation needed] Leading a large and competitive agricultural state, Lula generally opposes and criticizes farm subsidies, and this position has been seen as one of the reasons for the walkout of developing nations and subsequent collapse of the Cancún World Trade Organization talks in 2003 over G8 agricultural subsidies.[31] Brazil is becoming influential in dialogue between South America and developed countries, especially the United States. It played an important role in negotiations in internal conflicts of Venezuela and Colombia, and concentrated efforts on strengthening Mercosur.[32] During the Lula administration, Brazilian foreign trade has increased dramatically, changing from deficits to several surpluses since 2003. In 2004 the surplus reached $29 billion due to a substantial increase in global demand for commodities. Brazil has also provided UN peace-keeping troops and leads a peace-keeping mission in Haiti.[33] Lula also gained increasing stature in the Southern hemisphere buoyed by economic growth in his country. In 2008, he was said to have become a "point man for healing regional crises," as in the escalation of tensions between Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador. Former Finance Minister, and current advisor, Delfim Netto, said: "Lula is the ultimate pragmatist."[34] He travelled to more than 80 countries during his presidency.[35] A goal of Lula's foreign policy has been for the country to gain a seat as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. In this he has so far been unsuccessful.[35] And Lula was considered to have pulled off a major coup with Turkey in regards to getting Iran to send its uranium abroad in contravention of western calls.[35][36] Lula and his wife, former First Lady Marisa Letícia, pictured in the Palácio da Alvorada, the official residence of the Brazilian president.The condemnation of Iranian Sakineh Mohammadi Ashtiani for the crime of adultery, and who was originally to be executed by stoning led to calls for Lula da Silva's intervention on her behalf. On the issue, Lula commented that "I need to respect the laws of a [foreign] country. If my friendship with the president of Iran and the respect that I have for him is worth something, if this woman has become a nuisance, we will receive her in Brazil." The Iranian government, however, declined the offer.[37][38] Lula da Silva's actions and comments sparked controversy. Mina Ahadi, an Iranian Communist politician, welcomed Lula da Silva's offer of asylum for Ashtiani, but also reiterated a call for an end to stoning altogether and requesting a cessation of recognition and support for the Iranian government.[39][40][41][42] Jackson Diehl, Deputy Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post, called Lula da Silva the "best friend of tyrants in the democratic world" and criticised his actions.[37] Shirin Ebadi, Iranian human rights activist and Nobel Peace Prize winner, viewed Lula da Silva's intervention in a more positive light, calling it a "powerful message to the Islamic Republic."[43] [edit] Corruption scandals and controversyLula's administration was plagued by corruption scandals, most notably the mensalão and sanguessugas scandals, in his first term. Although the independent office of the Brazilian Attorney-General presented charges against 40 politicians and officials involved in the Mensalão affair, no charges have ever been presented against Lula himself, and top officials involved, such as Roberto Jefferson, José Dirceu, Luiz Gushiken and Humberto Costa denied he was aware of any wrongdoing; his only crime would be omission, since it was attested by one of his own party members, Alindo Chinaglia, that Lula had been warned of its existence.[44] Having lost numerous government aides in the face of political turmoil, Lula has come largely unscathed in the eyes of the public, with overwhelming approval rates. His administration has been heavily criticized for relying on local political barons, like José Sarney, Jader Barbalho, Renan Calheiros and Fernando Collor, to ensure a majority in Congress. He lost some important votes there, though, for example when the Senate barred the financial tax from being reinstated. Another frequent reproach relates to his ambiguous treatment of the left wing in the Workers' Party. Analysts fear that he occasionally gives in to their wishes for tighter government control of the media and increased state intervention: in 2004, he pushed for the creation of a "Federal Council of Journalists" (CFJ) and a "National Cinema Agency" (Ancinav), the latter of which would overhaul funding for electronic communications. Both proposals ultimately failed amid concerns that they would lead to excessive state intervention over free speech.[45][46] Fernando Cardoso, Lula's predecessor as the president of Brazil, has accused Lula of denying any positive achievements allegedly made by the Cardoso administration.[47] In March 2009, before an appearance at the G-20 summit meeting in London, Lula caused an uproar when he declared that the economic crisis was caused by "the irrational behavior of white people with blue eyes, who before seemed to know everything, and now have shown they don't know anything."[48] Wanted Italian terrorist Cesare Battisti was arrested in Rio de Janeiro on 18 March 2007 by Brazilian and French police officers. Later, Brazilian Minister of Justice Tarso Genro granted him the status of political refugee, in a controversial decision which was much criticized in Italy, whereas divided Brazilian and international press opinion. On 5 February 2009, the European Parliament adopted a resolution in support of Italy and held a minute of silence in memory to Battisti's victims. On 18 November 2009, the Brazilian Supreme Court considered the refugee status illegal and allowed extradition, but also stated that the Brazilian constitution gives the president personal powers to deny the extradition if he chooses to, effectively putting the final decision in the hands of Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. Despite that decision, Lula decided to deny extradition of the Italian far-left terrorist Cesare Battisti. On 31 December 2010, Lula's last effective day as president, the decision not to allow extradition was officially announced. Battisti was released on 9 June 2011 from prison after the Brazilian Constitutional Court denied Italy's request to extradite him. Italy plans to appeal to the International Court of Justice in The Hague. [edit] Post-presidencyOn 29 October 2011, Lula was announced by Sírio-Libanes Hospital to have contracted throat cancer by way of a malignant tumor in his larynx. He elected to undergo chemotherapy to counteract the tumor, and on 16 November, pictures were released by his press office of his wife shaving his beard and hair, leaving him bald but retaining his moustache.[49] It was the first time that Lula was seen without his beard since leaving office.[50] He was treated with radiation therapy sessions, until the cancer was in complete remission. There are no longer any visible tumors, but he would still be checked periodically. Lula announced his recovery on March 2012, and his return to politics to continue working for Brazilians. Dilma Rousseff, the current president of Brazil, praised the news.[51] Lula may run for the presidency a new time in 2014 if Rousseff does not seek a reelection by then.[52] [edit] Awards and recognition Approval ratings of Lula from April 2006 until December 2010. At the end of his term he had an approval rating of 87%. Source: CNT / Sensus.Since Lula began his term as President, he has attained numerous medals, such as the Brazilian Order of Merit, the Brazilian Orders of Military, Naval and Aeronautical Merit, the Brazilian Order of Scientific Merit, the Mexican Order of the Aztec Eagle[53] and the Norwegian Order of Royal Merit; the First Class of the Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise (Ukraine, 2003), the Order of Liberty (Ukraine, 2009). He also received the Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation in 2003[54] and was the chief guest at India's Republic Day celebration in 2004.[55] He was also given the Jawaharlal Nehru Award in 2006.[56] He was rated the most popular Brazilian president of all time with an 80.5% approval rate in his last months as the president.[57] US President Barack Obama greeted him at the G20 summit in London (April, 2009) saying: "That's my man right this guy...The most popular politician on earth."[58] Lula was chosen as the 2009 Man of the Year by prominent European newspapers El País and Le Monde. The Financial Times ranks Lula among the 50 faces that shaped the 2000s.[59] On 20 December 2008, he was named the 18th most important person in the world by Newsweek magazine, and was the only Latin American person featured in a list of 50 most influential World leaders.[60] On July 7, 2009, he received UNESCO's Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, France. On 5 November 2009, President Lula was awarded the Chatham House Prize, awarded to the statesperson who is deemed by Chatham House members to have made the most significant contribution to the improvement of international relations in the previous year.[61] On 29 January 2010, President Lula was awarded as a Global Statesman by the World Economic Forum, held in Davos, Switzerland, but could not attend the ceremony due to problems of high blood pressure.[62] In 2010, Time Magazine named Lula one of the most influential leaders of the world.[63] On 27 September 2011, President Lula received a doctorate honoris causa from the Paris Institute of Political Studies, commonly known as Sciences Po.[64] On October 14, 2011, President Lula received the 2011 World Food Prize, along with John Kufuor, for his personal commitment and visionary leadership while serving as the president of Brazil, and for creating and implementing government policies to alleviate hunger and poverty in his country.[65] [edit] See also Brazil portal Biography portal Lula, o filho do Brasil (Lula, The Son of Brasil), a Brazilian film about Lula's life up to 35 years of age. [edit] References^ "Folha Online – Mundo – "Lula é um católico a seu modo", diz d. Cláudio Hummes – 06/04/2005". 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2010-10-03. ^ a b Luiz Inácio da Silva was Lula's full birth name, which he used from 1945 to 1982, but he has been known as Lula since childhood; the nickname itself is a hypocoristic for Luiz with consonantal reduplication. Consequently, Lula became the name by which he was known throughout his career as a metallurgical worker, and as he emerged in the national scene as a union leader, and for all his political life. In 1982, in order to run for governorship of the state of São Paulo, Lula changed his legal name, adding the nickname Lula by which he was nationally known. Under Brazilian electoral laws at the time, one could use only one's legal name to run for public office. Currently, Brazilian newspapers refer to him either (more formally) using his full name Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva or (informally or on second reference) only his moniker Lula. ^ Liz Throssell (September 30, 2010). "Lula's legacy for Brazil's next president". BBC News. Retrieved March 29, 2012. ^ "Lula leaves office as Brazil's 'most popular' president". 31 December 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2011. ^ "'The Most Popular Politician on Earth'". 31 December 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2011. ^ "Lula's last lap". 8 January 2009. Retrieved 4 January 2011. ^ Hemispheres 2004 Edition. Retrieved August 17, 2010. ^ Time (May 10, 2010). p. 20. ^ Perry Anderson (31 March 2011). "Lula's Brazil". London Review of Books. Retrieved 5 April 2011. ^ Rory Carroll (March 10, 2010). "Lula stubs out smoking habit". The Guardian. Retrieved March 29, 2012. ^ "Brazil ex-President Lula diagnosed with throat cancer". BBC News. 2011-10-29. ^ "Hoje em dia" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2009-12-14. ^ "Lurian, filha de Lula, foi atendida no hospital Sírio-Libanês – politica".,lurian-filha-de-lula-foi-atendida-no-hospital-sirio-libanes,201085,0.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-03. ^ a b "Lula: Fourth time lucky?". BBC News (BBC). 2002-10-28. Retrieved 2007-04-27. ^ a b "Biography". Presidency of the Federative Republic of Brazil. 2005. Retrieved 2007-09-02. ^ "G1 > Eleições 2006 – NOTÍCIAS – Com votação recorde, Lula chega ao segundo mandato".,,AA1330800-6282,00.html. Retrieved 2010-10-03. ^ a b Brazilian president's handpicked successor leads, faces runoff by Juan Forero, The Washington Post, October 4, 2010 ^ "Lula bids a tearful goodbye". Al Jazeera English. December 30, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2012. ^ The Economist (2009-02-05). "Where dinausaurs still roam". Retrieved 2009-05-12. ^ "Brazil re-elects President Lula". BBC News (BBC). 2006-10-30. Retrieved 2007-04-27. ^ Newsroom (2007-08-27). "Brazilian President Vows Not to Seek a Third Term". Mercopress via Brazzil Magazine. Archived from the original on 2007-12-25. Retrieved 2008-04-05. ^ Kirksey, Emily (2006-06-21). "Lula – Brazil's Lost Leader". Council on Hemispheric Affairs. Retrieved 2008-04-05. ^ "Brazil hit by debt downgrade". BBC News (BBC). 2002-06-21. Retrieved 2007-08-09. ^ a b "Henrique de Campos Meirelles". Banco Central do Brazil. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-08-09. ^ Balbi, Sandra (2005-12-18). "Economistas Alertam para Desindustrialização" (in Portuguese). Folha de S. Paulo. Retrieved 2008-04-05. ^ "Brazil to pay off IMF debts early". BBC News (BBC). 2005-12-14. Retrieved 2007-04-27. ^ Newsroom. "O Chefe (The Boss) by Ivo Patarra". ^ Clemente, Isabel; Leal, Andréa; Neves, Maria Laura. "Enfim, Lula privatizou..." (in Portuguese). Época (Rede Globo).,,EDG79551-6009,00.html. Retrieved 2008-04-05. ^ Parra-Bernal, Guillermo; Pimentel, Lester. "Brazil Became Net Creditor for First Time in January". (Bloomberg). Retrieved 2008-01-06. ^ "Lula e o lucro recorde dos bancos" (in Portuguese). La Agencia Latinoamericana de Información – ALAI. 2007-08-16. Retrieved 2009-06-23. ^ Padgett, Tim (2004-04-26). "Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva". Time. Retrieved 2008-03-26. ^ Lapper, Richard; Wheatley, Jonathan; Silva, Luiz Inácio Lula da (2006-07-11). "Interview transcript: Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva". Financial Times (Brasília, Brazil). Retrieved 2008-04-05. ^ Cirilo Junior (January 16, 2010). "Tropas brasileiras ainda lideram missão no Haiti, diz Jobim". Folha. Retrieved March 29, 2012. ^ Kraul, Chris; McDonnell, Patrick J. (2008-10-05). "Brazil's Lula takes center stage in Latin America – Los Angeles Times".,0,1861646.story. Retrieved 2009-07-02. ^ a b c "The axis of Brazil – Focus". Al Jazeera English. 2010-05-22. Retrieved 2010-10-03. ^ Hanan Awarekeh. "Al-ManarTV:: Iran 'Checkmated' US as It Awaits Quick Response to 3-Way Nuclear Deal 18/05/2010". Retrieved 2010-10-03. ^ a b "Lula: Stonewalled by Iran". The Washington Post. ^ "Iran stoning woman offered asylum by Brazil's president Lula". The Guardian (London). 2010-08-01. ^ "Press Release 29: On Brazilian offer of asylum to Sakineh Mohammadi Ashtiani | International Committee Against Stoning". 2010-07-31. Retrieved 2010-10-03. ^ "Open letter to the Brazilian president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva A regime of stoning should not be recognised | International Committee Against Stoning". 2010-08-02. Retrieved 2010-10-03. ^ Mirian (2010-08-21). "Porta voz do Comitê Internacional contra Apedrejamento envia carta aberta a Lula - Internacional - Notícia -". Retrieved 2010-10-03. ^ Amauri Arrais Do G1, em São Paulo (2010-07-30). "G1 – Lula pode ajudar a libertar condenada a apedrejamento, diz ativista iraniana – notícias em Mundo". Retrieved 2010-10-03. ^ Shirin Ebadi: When Adultery Means Death. Retrieved on 2010-11-29. ^ Lula sabia, sim, do mensalão, confirma Chinaglia - Brasil - Notícia - ^ Caram, Fabio. Conselho, imprensa e controle, Observatório da Imprensa, 2004-08-17. ^ Op. Ed. O Estado de S. Paulo, 2009-09-06. ^ Lula's Tactic to Win: Denying His Predecessor Has Ever Done Anything Good ^ Barrionuevo, Alexei (July 26, 2010 (Updated)). "Times Topics: Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva". The New York Times. Retrieved October 31, 2010. ^ "Brazil's Lula da Silva shaves beard in cancer battle". BBC News. 16 November 2011 Last updated at 17:22 ET. ^ "Brazil ex-President Lula diagnosed with throat cancer". BBC News. 29 October 2011 Last updated at 10:51 ET. ^ "Lula da Silva announces his back in politics after defeating cancer". MercoPress. March 29, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012. ^ "Brazil ex-President Lula's cancer treatment 'a success'". BBC News. March 28, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012. ^ Walle, Suzanne Stephens (2007-08-06). "President Calderón at Dinner Hosted in Honor of Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and his wife, Marisa Leticia Lula da Silva". Sistema Internet de la Presidencia. Retrieved 2007-09-13. ^ "The Prince of Asturias Foundation". Retrieved 2009-07-02. ^ "India shows off on republic day". BBC News (BBC). 2004-01-26. Retrieved 2008-04-05. ^ JAWAHARLAL NEHRU AWARD, ICCR – Indian Council for Cultural Relations, Universe of Culture, Promoting Indian Culture, Showcasing World Cultures. Retrieved on 2010-11-29. ^ G1 – Popularidade de Lula é de 80,5%, aponta pesquisa CNT/Sensus – notícias em Política. Retrieved on 2010-11-29. ^ "Obama: "I love this guy"". BBC News. April 2, 2009. Retrieved March 29, 2012. ^ "Fifty faces that shaped the decade". Financial Times. Retrieved March 29, 2012. ^ "The NEWSWEEK 50: Brazil's Chief, Lula da Silva | Newsweek The Global Elite". 2009-01-05. Retrieved 2009-07-02. ^ "Events – Special Events – Chatham House Prize – 2009". Chatham House. Retrieved 2010-10-03. ^ "Annual Meeting 2010". February 19, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2012. ^ "The 2010 Time 100". Time.,28757,1984685,00.html. ^ "Em Paris, Lula recebe honoris causa do Instituto Sciences Po". Tempo.,,OI5379701-EI7896,00-Em+Paris+Lula+recebe+honoris+causa+do+Instituto+Sciences+Po.html. ^ "John Agyekum Kufuor & Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva". The World Food Prize. 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2012. [edit] Further readingSilva, Luis Inácio da; Castro, Cassiana Rosa de; Machado, Sueli de Fátima; Santos, Alveci Oliveira de Orato; Ferreira, Luiz Tarcísio Teixeira; Teixeira, Paulo; Suplicy, Marta; Dutra, Olívio (2003). "The programme for land tenure legalization on public land in São Paulo, Brazil." Environment and Urbanization 15 (2): 191–200. Bourne, R (2008). Lula of Brazil : The story so far. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24663-8 Goertzel, Ted (2011). Brazil's Lula: The Most Popular Politician on Earth. Boca Raton, Florida: Brown Walker Press. ISBN 978-1-61233-505-6. [edit] External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva Appearances on C-SPAN Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva on Charlie Rose Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Internet Movie Database Works by or about Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in libraries (WorldCat catalog) Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva collected news and commentary at Bloomberg News Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva collected news and commentary at The Christian Science Monitor Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva collected news and commentary at Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva collected news and commentary at The New York Times Profile: Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, BBC News, 28 January 2010 The 2010 TIME 100: Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Michael Moore, Time, 20 April 2010 Speeches Transcript of statements by Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, President of Brazil, to the high-level meeting for foreign investors, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 29 January 2004, (meeting press release) General Debate of the 64th Session, United Nations, 2009 Party political offices New office Workers' Party nominee for President of Brazil 1989, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006 Succeeded by Dilma Rousseff Political offices Preceded by Fernando Henrique Cardoso President of Brazil 1 January 2003 – 31 December 2010 Succeeded by Dilma Rousseff v · t · e Presidents of Brazil Old republic Deodoro da Fonseca · Floriano Peixoto · Prudente de Morais · Campos Sales · Rodrigues Alves · Afonso Pena · Nilo Peçanha · Hermes da Fonseca · Venceslau Brás · Delfim Moreira · Epitácio Pessoa · Artur Bernardes · Washington Luís · Júlio Prestes Vargas era Provisional Military Junta · Getúlio Vargas · José Linhares Republic of 46 Eurico Gaspar Dutra · Getúlio Vargas · Café Filho · Carlos Luz · Nereu Ramos · Juscelino Kubitschek · Jânio Quadros · Ranieri Mazzilli · João Goulart Military dictatorship Ranieri Mazzilli · Humberto Castello Branco · Artur da Costa e Silva · Military Junta · Emílio Médici · Ernesto Geisel · João Figueiredo New republic Tancredo Neves · José Sarney · Fernando Collor de Mello · Itamar Franco · Fernando Henrique Cardoso · Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva · Dilma Rousseff Persondata Name Silva, Luiz Inácio Lula da Alternative names da Silva, Luiz (common incorrect referent); Lula (nickname) Short description President of Brazil Date of birth October 27, 1945 Place of birth Caetés, Pernambuco, Brazil Date of death Place of death Retrieved from "ácio_Lula_da_Silva&oldid=499133812" Categories: 1945 birthsBrazilian amputeesBrazilian Christian socialistsBrazilian Order of Scientific Merit recipientsBrazilian Roman CatholicsHonorary Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the BathKnights Grand Cross of the Order of St. OlavRoyal Norwegian Order of MeritRecipients of the Order of the Southern CrossRecipients of the Order of the Aztec EagleRecipients of the Order of Liberty (Ukraine)Recipients of the Order of Prince Yaroslav the WiseLiving peopleMembers of the Chamber of Deputies of BrazilPeople from PernambucoPoliticians with physical disabilitiesCancer survivorsPresidents of BrazilPresidents of the Workers' Party (Brazil)Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from June 2010Commons category template with no category set Personal toolsCreate account Log in NamespacesArticle Talk VariantsViewsRead Edit View history ActionsSearch NavigationMain page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia InteractionHelp About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia ToolboxWhat links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Cite this page Print/exportCreate a bookDownload as PDFPrintable versionLanguagesAfrikaans Alemannisch العربية aragonés arpetan asturianu Bân-lâm-gú беларуская български brezhoneg català česky Cymraeg dansk Deutsch eesti Ελληνικά emiliàn e rumagnòl español Esperanto euskara فارسی français Gaeilge Gaelg galego 한국어 हिन्दी Hornjoserbsce hrvatski Ido Bahasa Indonesia interlingua íslenska italiano עברית ქართული Latina latviešu Lëtzebuergesch lietuvių lumbaart मराठी Bahasa Melayu Mirandés монгол Nāhuatl Nederlands 日本語 ‪norsk (bokmål)‬ ‪norsk (nynorsk)‬ occitan Papiamentu polski português română Runa Simi русский Scots Simple English slovenčina Словѣ́ньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ کوردی српски / srpski srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски suomi svenska தமிழ் tetun Türkçe українська vèneto Tiếng Việt Yorùbá 粵語 中文 This page was last modified on 24 June 2012 at 13:32. 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