sexta-feira, 8 de junho de 2012

Rússia Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre Ir para: navegação , pesquisa Federação Russa Российская Федерация Rossiyskaya Federatsiya Bandeira Brasão Anthem : Государственный гимн Российской Федерации ( TR. : Gimn Gosudarstvenny Rossiyskoy Federatsii ) Hino do Estado da Federação Russa Capital (E maior cidade) Moscou 55 ° 45'N 37 ° 37'E / 55,75 N ° 37,617 ° E / 55,75; 37,617 Língua oficial (s) oficiais russas em todo o país, outros 27 co-oficiais em várias regiões Etnias Russos 79,8%, tártaros 3,8%, ucranianos 2%, Bashkirs 1,2%, Chuvashes 1,1%, chechenos 0,9%, armênios 0,8%, outros 10,4% [1] Demonym Russo Governo Federal semi-presidencialista república - Presidente Dmitry Medvedev - O primeiro-ministro Vladimir Putin ( independente , mas o líder da UR ) - Presidente do Conselho da Federação Sergey Mironov ( FR ) - Presidente da Duma do Estado Boris Gryzlov ( UR ) Legislador Assembleia Federal - Câmara Alta Conselho da Federação - Câmara dos Deputados Duma Formação - Dinastia Rurik 862 - Rus 'de Kiev 882 - Vladimir-Suzdal Rus ' 1169 - Grão-Ducado de Moscovo 1283 - Rússia Czarista 1547 - Império Russo 1721 - Rússia República Socialista Federativa Soviética 07 de novembro de 1917 - União das Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas 10 de dezembro de 1922 - Federação Russa 26 de dezembro de 1991 Área - Total 17075400 km 2 ( 1 ) 6592800 sq mi - Água (%) 13 [2] (incluindo pântanos ) População - 2010 estimar 141927297 [3] ( 9 ) - Censo 2010 141945966 [4] - Densidade 8.3/km 2 ( 217 ) mi 21.5/sq PIB ( PPP ) 2010 estimar - Total 2219000000000 dólar [5] - per capita $ 15.807 [5] PIB (nominal) 2010 estimar - Total $ 1477000000000 [5] - per capita $ 10.522 [5] Gini (2008) 42,3 [6] (alta) IDH (2010) 0,719 [7] (alta) ( 65 ) Moeda Rublo ( RUB ) O fuso horário ( UTC 2-11 (excluindo 4)) - Verão ( DST ) ( UTC 3-12 (excluindo 5)) Unidades no direito Código ISO 3166 EF Internet TLD . Ru , . su , . рф Chamando o código +7 Este artigo é sobre o país. Para outros usos, veja a Rússia (desambiguação) . Rússia ( i / r ʌ ʃ ə / ; russo : Россия, . tr Rossiya, IPA: [rɐs ʲ ijə] ( ouça )), oficialmente conhecida como a Rússia ea Rússia [8] ( russo : Российская Федерация, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, IPA: [rɐs ʲ ijskəjə f ʲ ɪd ʲ ɪratsəjə] ( ouça )), é um estado no norte da Eurásia . [9] É um federal semi-presidencialista república , com 83 indivíduos federal . De noroeste para sudeste, a Rússia faz fronteira com a Noruega , Finlândia , Estónia , Letónia , Lituânia e Polónia (ambas via Kaliningrado ), Bielorrússia , Ucrânia , Geórgia , Azerbaijão , Cazaquistão , a República Popular da China , Mongólia e Coreia do Norte . Ele também tem fronteiras marítimas com o Japão pelo mar de Okhotsk e do Estados Unidos pelo Estreito de Bering . Na 17.075.400 quilômetros quadrados (6.592.800 sq mi), a Rússia é o maior país do mundo , cobrindo mais de um nono da Terra é terra 'área. A Rússia também é o nono país mais populoso , com 142 milhões de pessoas. [2] Ele se estende por toda a Ásia do norte e 40% da Europa, abrangendo nove fusos horários e que incorpora uma ampla variedade de ambientes e relevos. A Rússia tem a maior reserva mundial de energia e recursos minerais. [10] Tem a maior reserva florestal e seus lagos conter aproximadamente um quarto do mundo de água doce . [11] nação A história começou com a do eslavos orientais , que surgiram como um grupo reconhecido na Europa entre os séculos 3 e 8 dC. [9] Fundada e dirigida por uma Varangian elite de guerreiros e seus descendentes, a primeira Oriente estado eslavo, o Principado de Kiev " , surgiu no século 9 e aprovou o Cristianismo Ortodoxo do Império Bizantino , em 988, [12] começa a síntese de culturas eslavas e bizantino que definiram a cultura russa para o próximo milênio . [12] Rus 'de Kiev finalmente desintegrou-se em uma série de Estados menores, a maioria dos Rus 'de terras em última análise, foram invadidos pela invasão mongol e foram tributários dos nómadas Golden Horde . [13] O Grão-Ducado de Moscou gradualmente reunificou o russo principados vizinhos, conseguiu a independência da Horda de Ouro, e chegou a dominar o legado cultural e político da Rus 'de Kiev. Por volta do século 18, a nação tinha expandido através da conquista, anexação, e exploração para se tornar o Império Russo , que foi o terceiro maior império da história, que se estende desde a Polónia na Europa para o Alasca América do Norte. [14] [15] A Rússia abriu poder e influência mundial desde os tempos do Império Russo de ser o e levando componente maior da União Soviética , primeiro do mundo a Constituição do Estado socialista e uma reconhecida superpotência , [16], que desempenhou um papel decisivo na Allied vitória no Mundial II Guerra . [17] [18] A era soviética viu alguns dos maiores êxitos da tecnologia do século 20, como o mundo humano primeiro voo espacial . A Federação Russa foi fundado após a dissolução da União Soviética em 1991, mas é reconhecido como a personalidade jurídica, manutenção do estado soviético. [19] A Rússia tem o mundo a maior economia 10 por PIB nominal, ou a sexta maior em paridade de poder aquisitivo , com o 5 º maior orçamento militar nominal. É um dos cinco reconhecido armas nucleares estados e possui o maior arsenal de armas de destruição em massa . [20] A Rússia é uma grande potência e um membro permanente do Conselho de Segurança das Nações Unidas , membro do G8 , G20 , o Conselho da Europa , a Ásia-Pacific Economic Cooperation , o Shanghai Cooperation Organization , a Comunidade Económica da Eurásia , a Organização para a Segurança e Cooperação na Europa (OSCE), e é o destacado membro da Comunidade de Estados Independentes . Conteúdo Uma História 1,1 Etimologia 1,2 períodos iniciais 1,3 Rus 'de Kiev 1,4 Grão-Ducado de Moscovo 1,5 Rússia Czarista 1,6 Rússia Imperial 1,7 a Rússia Soviética 1,8 Federação Russa 2 Política 2.1 Relações Exteriores 2,2 Militar 2,3 divisões administrativas 3 Geografia 3,1 Topografia 3.2 Clima 3,3 Biodiversidade 4 Economia 4,1 Agricultura 4,2 Energia 4.3 Transporte 4,4 Ciência e Tecnologia 5 Demografia 5,1 Maiores cidades 5,2 Idioma 5,3 Religião 5.4 Saúde 5,5 Educação 6 Cultura 6,1 a cultura popular e gastronomia 6,2 Arquitetura 6,3 artes visuais 6,4 Música e dança 6,5 Literatura e filosofia 6,6 Cinema, animação e mídia 6,7 Esportes 6,8 feriados nacionais e os símbolos 6,9 Turismo 7 Veja também 8 Referências 9 Leitura adicional 10 Ligações externas História Ver artigo principal: História da Rússia Etimologia Ver artigo principal: Rus (nome) original do nome do país era Русь (Rus), um estado medieval povoada principalmente pelos eslavos orientais . No entanto, esse nome próprio tornou-se mais importante na história mais tarde, eo país em geral foi chamado por seus habitantes "Русская Земля" (Russkaya zemlya), que poderia ser traduzido como "Russian Land" ou "Terra dos Rus ' ". A fim de diferenciar esse estado de outros estados derivados, ele é indicado como Rus 'de Kiev pela historiografia moderna. Uma antiga versão latina do nome Rus 'foi Rutênia , a maior parte aplicada ao sul e as regiões ocidentais da Rus 'que eram adjacentes a Europa católica. O nome atual do país, Россия (Rossiya), vem da versão grega da Rus ', soletrada Ρωσία [Rosia], que era a denominação da Rus no Império Bizantino . períodos iniciais Mais informações: nômades da Eurásia , Cítia , Bosporan Unido , Khazaria e eslavos orientais Kurgan hipótese : o sul da Rússia como o Urheimat dos povos indo-europeus . Um dos primeiros humanos modernos ossos da idade de 35 000 anos, foi encontrado na Rússia, em Kostenki sobre o rio Don bancos. Em tempos pré-históricos as vastas estepes do sul da Rússia foram o lar de tribos de pastores nómadas . [21] Os restos dessas civilizações estepe foram descobertos em lugares como Ipatovo , [21] Sintashta , [22] Arkaim , [23] e Pazyryk , [ 24] , que suportará os primeiros vestígios conhecidos de guerra montada , uma característica fundamental em modo de vida nômade. Na antiguidade clássica , o estepe do mar Cáspio era conhecido como Cítia . Desde o século 8 aC, o grego antigo comerciantes trouxeram sua civilização aos empórios comerciais no Tanais e Fanagória . [25] Entre os séculos 3 e 6 dC, o Reino Bosporan , um sistema político helenista que conseguiu as colônias gregas, [26] foi oprimido por invasões nômades liderados por tribos guerreiras, como os hunos e ávaros Eurásia . [27] Um povo turco , os khazares , governou o mais baixo Volga estepes entre a bacia do Mar Cáspio eo Mar Negro até o século 8. [28] Os antepassados ​​dos modernos russos são eslavos , cujo lar original é considerado por alguns estudiosos como tendo sido as áreas florestadas dos pântanos Pinsk . [29] Os eslavos orientais gradualmente resolvidos ocidental da Rússia em duas ondas: uma que se deslocam de Kiev para apresentar- dia Suzdal e Murom e outro de Polotsk para Novgorod e Rostov . A partir do século 7, os eslavos orientais constituíam o grosso da população na Rússia Ocidental [30] e, lentamente, mas de forma pacífica assimilado o nativo -Ugric povos fino , incluindo o Merya , o Muromians eo Meshchera . Rus 'de Kiev Ver artigo principal: Rus 'de Kiev e estados eslavos orientais precoce Rus 'de Kiev , no século 11 O estabelecimento dos primeiros estados do leste eslavo no século 9 coincidiu com a chegada de Varangians , os Vikings que se aventuraram ao longo dos canais que se estende do Báltico Oriental para o preto e do Mar Cáspio Seas. [31] De acordo com a Crônica Primária , a partir de um Varangian 'pessoas Rus , chamado Rurik , foi eleito governador de Novgorod em 862. Seu sucessor do Profeta Oleg moveu para o sul e conquistou Kiev , em 882, [32] que tinha sido anteriormente em homenagem aos khazares , por isso o estado da Rus 'de Kiev começou. Oleg, Rurik filho Igor e do filho Igor Svyatoslav posteriormente submetido todas as tribos eslavas do leste para se pronunciar, em Kiev, destruiu o Khazar e lançou várias expedições militares para Bizâncio . Nos séculos 10 a 11 de Rus 'de Kiev tornou-se um dos estados mais prósperos e maior da Europa. [33] Os reinados de Vladimir, o Grande (980-1015) e seu filho Yaroslav I o Sábio (1019-1054) constituem o Golden Idade de Kiev, que teve a aceitação do Cristianismo Ortodoxo de Bizâncio e da criação dos primeiros eslavos orientais escrito código legal , o Pravda Russkaya . Nos séculos 11 e 12, as incursões constantes por tribos turcas nómadas, como o Kipchaks e os pechenegues , provocou uma migração maciça das populações eslavas do seguro, regiões densamente florestadas do norte, especialmente na área conhecida como Zalesye . [34 ] O Batismo de kievanos , por Lebedev Klavdy . A idade do feudalismo ea descentralização havia chegado, marcado pelo constante combate entre os membros da dinastia Rurik que governou Rus 'de Kiev coletivamente. dominância de Kiev diminuiu, em benefício de Vladimir-Suzdal no nordeste, República de Novgorod , no noroeste e -Galiza Volhynia no sudoeste. Em última análise, Rus 'de Kiev se desintegrou, com o golpe final, sendo a invasão mongol de 1237-1240, [35] , que resultou na destruição de Kiev [36] ea morte de cerca de metade da população da Rus '. [37] Os invasores, mais tarde conhecida como os tártaros , formaram o estado da Horda de Ouro , que pilharam os principados russos e governou o sul e central extensões da Rússia por mais de três séculos. [38] Galiza-Volhynia foi finalmente assimilada pela Comunidade Polaco-Lituana , enquanto o mongol dominado Vladimir-Suzdal ea República de Novgorod, duas regiões da periferia de Kiev, estabeleceu as bases para a Rússia nação moderna. [12] O Novgorod, juntamente com Pskov retido algum grau de autonomia durante o tempo do jugo mongol e foram amplamente poupadas as atrocidades que afetou o resto do país. Liderado pelo príncipe Alexander Nevsky , Novgorodianos repelido os invasores suecos na Batalha do Neva de 1240, bem como a cruzados germânicos na Batalha do Gelo , em 1242, quebrando suas tentativas de colonizar o norte da Rus '. Grão-Ducado de Moscovo Ver artigo principal: Grão-Ducado de Moscovo Sérgio de Radonezh bênção Dmitri Donskoi em Trindade Sérgio Lavra , antes da Batalha de Kulikovo . O sucessor do estado mais poderoso a Rus 'de Kiev foi o Grão-Ducado de Moscovo ("Moscovy" no Ocidente crônicas), inicialmente uma parte de Vladimir-Suzdal . Ainda sob o domínio dos mongóis, tártaros e com a sua conivência, Moscou começou a afirmar a sua influência na Rússia Ocidental no início do século 14. Aqueles eram tempos difíceis, com freqüentes invasões mongóis, tártaros e sofrimento a agricultura desde o início da Pequena Idade do Gelo . Como no resto da Europa, pragas atingiu a Rússia em algum lugar uma vez a cada cinco ou seis anos 1350-1490. No entanto, devido à densidade populacional menor e melhor higiene (prática generalizada de banya , o banho de vapor úmido), [39] A perda de população causados ​​por pragas não foi tão grave como na Europa Ocidental, e as populações pré-praga foram alcançados na Rússia, nos anos 1500. [40] Liderada pelo Príncipe Dmitri Donskoy de Moscou e ajudado pela Igreja Ortodoxa Russa , o exército unido dos principados russos infligiu uma derrota marco na-mongol tártaros na batalha de Kulikovo em 1380. Moscou gradativamente absorveu os principados vizinhos, incluindo o ex-rivais fortes, como Tver e Novgorod . Desta forma, Moscou se tornou a principal força de liderança no processo de reunificação da Rússia e expansão. Ivan III (o Grande), finalmente se livrou do controle da Horda Dourada, consolidou o conjunto da Europa Central e do Norte Rus 'sob o domínio de Moscou, e foi o primeiro a ter o título de "Grão-Duque de todas as Rússias". [41] Depois a queda de Constantinopla em 1453, Moscou reivindicou a sucessão ao legado do Império Romano do Oriente . Ivan III, casou com Sophia Palaiologina , a sobrinha do último imperador bizantino Constantino XI , e fez o bizantino águia de duas cabeças própria e, eventualmente, da Rússia, escudo de armas. Rússia Czarista Ver artigo principal: Rússia Czarista Czar Ivan IV por Ilya Repin No desenvolvimento da Terceira Roma idéias, o grão-duque Ivan IV (o "Fantástico" [42] ou "o Terrível") foi oficialmente coroado o primeiro czar (" César ") da Rússia em 1547. O czar promulgou um novo código de leis ( Sudebnik de 1550 ), estabeleceu o órgão representativo da Rússia feudal primeiro ( Zemsky Sobor ) e introduziu locais de auto-gestão nas regiões rurais. [43] [44] Durante seu longo reinado, Ivan IV quase duplicou o grande território russo já juntando os três canatos Tatar (partes de desintegrou Golden Horde ): Kazan e Astrakhan ao longo do rio Volga, e Sibirean Khanate no sudoeste da Sibéria. Assim, até o final do século 16 a Rússia foi transformada em um multi-étnica , e multiconfessional Estado transcontinental . No entanto, o tzarismo foi enfraquecida pela longa e mal sucedida da Livônia Guerra contra a coligação da Polónia, da Lituânia, e Suécia, para o acesso à costa do Mar Báltico e comércio marítimo. [45] Ao mesmo tempo, os tártaros do Canato da Criméia , o único remanescente sucessora da Horda de Ouro , continuavam a atacar o sul da Rússia. [46] No esforço para restaurar o Volga canatos, crimeanos e seus Otomano aliados invadiram a Rússia central e foram capazes de queimar as peças de Moscou em 1571. [47] Mas ao lado ano, o grande exército invasor foi completamente derrotada pelos russos na Batalha de Molodi , eliminando para sempre a ameaça da expansão da Crimeia-Otomano à Rússia. As invasões de crimeanos, no entanto, não cessou até o final do século 17, embora a construção de linhas de fortificação novo em todo o sul da Rússia, como o abatis Great Line , constantemente reduziu a área acessível ao incursões. Monumento a Minin e Pozharsky em Moscou A morte dos filhos de Ivan marcou o fim da antiga dinastia Rurik , em 1598, e em combinação com a fome de 1601-1603 [48] levou à guerra civil, o Estado de pretendentes ea intervenção estrangeira durante o Tempo das Perturbações no início dos anos século 17. [49] Polaco-Lituana partes ocupadas da Rússia, incluindo Moscou. Em 1612 os poloneses foram forçados a recuar pelo corpo de voluntários da Rússia, liderado por dois heróis nacionais, o comerciante Kuzma Minin e Príncipe Dmitry Pozharsky . A dinastia Romanov aderiram ao trono em 1613 por decisão do Zemsky Sobor , eo país iniciou a sua recuperação gradual da crise. A Rússia continuou o seu crescimento territorial ao longo do século 17, que era a idade de cossacos . Cossacos eram guerreiros organizados em comunidades militares, assemelhando-se piratas e pioneiros do Novo Mundo . Em 1648, os camponeses da Ucrânia se juntou ao cossacos Zaporozhian em rebelião contra a Polónia, Lituânia, durante a Revolta de Khmelnytsky , por causa da opressão social e religiosa que sofreram sob o domínio polonês. Em 1654 o líder ucraniano Bohdan Khmelnytsky , se ofereceu para o lugar da Ucrânia, sob a proteção do czar russo, Aleksey eu . Aleksey de aceitação desta oferta levou a uma outra guerra russo-polonesa (1654-1667) . Finalmente, a Ucrânia foi dividido ao longo do rio Dnieper , deixando a parte ocidental (ou da margem direita da Ucrânia ) para o governo polonês ea parte oriental ( margem esquerda da Ucrânia e Kiev ) em russo. Mais tarde, em 1670-71 o cossacos do Don liderada por Stenka Razin iniciou uma grande revolta na região do Volga, mas as tropas do czar eram bem sucedidos em derrotar os rebeldes. No leste, os russos exploração rápida e colonização dos territórios enormes da Sibéria foi liderado principalmente pelos cossacos caça de valiosas peles e marfim . exploradores russos empurrado para o leste principalmente ao longo das rotas de rios siberianos , e pela metade do século 17, havia assentamentos russo na Sibéria Oriental, na península de Chukchi , ao longo do rio Amur , e na costa do Pacífico. Em 1648, o Estreito de Bering entre a Ásia ea América do Norte foi aprovada pela primeira vez por Fedot Popov e Dezhnyov Semyon . Rússia Imperial Ver artigo principal: Império Russo Pedro, o Grande , o primeiro imperador da Rússia Sob Pedro I (o Grande), a Rússia foi proclamado um Império em 1721 e tornou-se reconhecida como uma potência mundial. Acórdão 1682-1725, Peter derrotou a Suécia na Grande Guerra do Norte , forçando-o a ceder West Carélia e Íngria (duas regiões perdidas pela Rússia no Tempo das Perturbações ), [50] , bem como Estônia e Livland , garantindo o acesso da Rússia à do mar e do comércio marítimo. [51] Sobre o Mar Báltico Pedro fundou uma nova capital chamada São Petersburgo , mais tarde conhecida como a janela da Rússia para a Europa. o Grande reformas Peter trouxe consideráveis ​​influências culturais da Europa Ocidental para a Rússia. O reinado de Pedro I a filha Elisabeth , em 1741-62 viu a participação da Rússia na Guerra dos Sete Anos (1756-1763). Durante este conflito entre a Rússia anexa Prússia Oriental por um tempo e ainda teve de Berlim. No entanto, após a morte de Elisabeth, todas essas conquistas foram devolvidos ao Reino da Prússia em favor da Prússia Pedro III da Rússia . Catarina II (o Grande), que governou em 1762-1796, presidiu o Age of Enlightenment russo . Ela estendeu o controle político da Rússia sobre a República das Duas Nações e incorporou a maioria de seus territórios para a Rússia durante as Partições da Polônia , empurrando a fronteira oeste da Rússia para a Europa Central. No sul, após as bem sucedidas Guerras Russo-Turca contra o Império Otomano , Catherine avançados de fronteira da Rússia ao Mar Negro, derrotando o Canato da Criméia . Como resultado de vitórias sobre os turcos otomanos, no início dos anos 19 do século a Rússia também fez significativos ganhos territoriais na Transcaucásia . Isto continuou com Alexandre I da (1801-1825) wresting de Finlândia do reino enfraquecido da Suécia em 1809 e da Bessarábia dos otomanos em 1812. Ao mesmo tempo, os russos colonizaram o Alasca e até mesmo fundou assentamentos na Califórnia, como Fort Ross . Em 1803-06 a Rússia primeira circum-navegação foi feita, depois seguido por outros notáveis ​​viagens marítimas de exploração da Rússia. Em 1820, uma expedição russa descobriu o continente da Antártida . O Império Russo em 1866 e suas esferas de influência Em alianças com vários países europeus, a Rússia lutou contra Napoleão 's França. A invasão francesa da Rússia na altura de o poder de Napoleão, em 1812, falhou miseravelmente como a obstinada resistência em combinação com o muito frio inverno russo levou a uma desastrosa derrota dos invasores, na qual mais de 95% do pan-europeia Grande Armée pereceram. [52] Liderados por Mikhail Kutuzov e de Barclay Tolly , o exército russo Napoleão deposto do país e percorreu a Europa na guerra da Coligação Sexta , finalmente entrando em Paris . Alexandre I da delegação chefiada Rússia no Congresso de Viena, que definiu o mapa da Europa pós-napoleônica. Os oficiais da Guerras Napoleónicas trouxe idéias do liberalismo para a Rússia com eles e tentaram reduzir os poderes do czar durante a fracassada revolta Decembrist de 1825. No final do reinado conservador de Nicolas I (1825-1855), um período de apogeu do poder da Rússia e de influência na Europa foi interrompido pela derrota na Guerra da Criméia . Entre 1847 e 1851 uma onda maciça de asiáticos cólera varreu a Rússia, afirmando que cerca de um milhão de vidas. [53] sucessor Nicholas Alexandre II (1855-1881) promulgou mudanças significativas no país, incluindo a reforma da emancipação de 1861 . Estes grandes reformas estimularam a industrialização ea modernização do exército russo, que teve sucesso liberado Bulgária contra o Império Otomano em 1877-78-Turco Guerra Russo . Bolchevique por Boris Kustodiev , uma representação visual da Revolução Russa O final do século 19 viu o surgimento de vários movimentos socialistas na Rússia. Alexandre II foi assassinado em 1881 por terroristas revolucionário, e ao reinado de seu filho Alexandre III (1881-1894) foi menos liberal, mas mais calmo. O último imperador russo, Nicolau II (1894-1917), foi incapaz, no entanto, para evitar que os acontecimentos da Revolução Russa de 1905 , desencadeada pela vencida Guerra Russo-Japonesa e da demonstração incidente conhecido como Domingo Sangrento . A revolta foi debelada, mas o governo foi obrigado a ceder grandes reformas, inclusive a concessão da liberdade de expressão e de montagem , a legalização dos partidos políticos, bem como a criação de um órgão legislativo eleito, a Duma do Império Russo . A migração para a Sibéria aumentou rapidamente no início do século 20, particularmente durante o Stolypin reforma agrária . Entre 1906 e 1914 mais de 4.000 mil colonos chegaram aqui. [54] Em 1914 a Rússia entrou a I Guerra Mundial, em resposta a declaração de guerra contra a Áustria de aliado da Rússia, Sérvia , e lutou em várias frentes ao mesmo tempo isolada do seu Triple Entente aliados. Em 1916, a Ofensiva Brusilov do exército russo destruiu quase completamente o exército da Áustria-Hungria . No entanto, a desconfiança existente público já do regime foi aprofundada pelo aumento dos custos da guerra, muitas baixas , e de rumores de corrupção e traição. Tudo isso formou o clima para a Revolução Russa de 1917 , realizado em dois atos importantes. A Revolução de Fevereiro forçado Nicolau II a abdicar, ele e sua família foram presos e depois executados durante a Guerra Civil Russa . A monarquia foi substituída por uma coalizão instável de partidos políticos que se declarou o Governo Provisório . Uma alternativa socialista estabelecimento existia ao lado, o Soviete de Petrogrado , exercendo o poder por meio de conselhos democraticamente eleitos dos trabalhadores e camponeses, chamado soviéticos . A regra das novas autoridades só agravou a crise no país, em vez de resolvê-lo. Eventualmente, a Revolução de Outubro , liderado pela bolchevique líder Vladimir Lênin , derrubou o Governo Provisório e criou o mundo o primeiro estado socialista . Rússia Soviética Ver artigo principal: União Soviética , História da União Soviética e Rússia Soviética República Socialista Federativa Os símbolos da era soviética precoce: Tatlin's Tower projeto eo gigante Trabalhador e kolkosiana Mulher grupo escultórico. Na sequência da Revolução de Outubro, uma guerra civil eclodiu entre os anti-comunistas movimento Branco e do novo regime com o seu Exército Vermelho . A Rússia perdeu o seu ucraniano, polonês, Báltico, Finlândia e territórios através da assinatura do Tratado de Brest-Litovsk , que concluiu as hostilidades com os Impérios Centrais na Primeira Guerra Mundial I. O potências aliadas lançaram uma mal sucedida intervenção militar em apoio as forças anti-comunistas, apesar de ambos o movimento e branco bolcheviques realizaram campanhas de deportações e execuções contra os outros, conhecidos respectivamente como Terror Vermelho eo Terror Branco . Até o final da guerra civil, a economia russa e infra-estruturas foram fortemente danificadas. Milhões de pessoas se tornou branco emigrantes , [55] ea fome Povolzhye requerida até 5 milhões de vítimas. [56] A Rússia Soviética República Socialista Federativa (chamado Rússia República Socialista Federativa Soviética na época), juntamente com outros três repúblicas soviéticas formaram a União Soviética , ou URSS, em 30 de dezembro de 1922. Das 15 repúblicas da URSS , a República Socialista Federativa Soviética da Rússia foi o maior em termos de tamanho e tornando-se mais da metade da população total da URSS, dominada a união de sua história 69 anos inteira. Após a morte de Lenin, em 1924, Joseph Stalin , um eleito secretário-geral do Partido Comunista , conseguiu derrubar todos os grupos de oposição dentro do partido e consolidar o poder muito em suas mãos. Leon Trotski , o principal proponente da revolução mundial , foi exilado de União Soviética, em 1929, e Stalin, a idéia do socialismo num só país tornou-se a linha principal. A luta interna continuou no partido bolchevique culminou com o Grande Expurgo , um período de repressões em massa em 1937-38, em que centenas de milhares de pessoas foram executadas, inclusive os militares condenados em golpe de Estado parcelas. [57] O governo lançou uma economia planificada , a industrialização do país de maioria rural e coletivização da sua agricultura. Durante este período de rápidas mudanças econômicas e sociais, milhões de pessoas foram enviadas para campos de trabalho penal , [58] , incluindo muitos presos políticos, e milhões foram deportados e exilados para áreas remotas da União Soviética. [58] A transição desorganização do da Agricultura do país, combinada com as políticas públicas dura e seca, levou à fome de 1932-1933 . [59] No entanto, embora com um preço muito alto, a União Soviética se transformou de uma economia agrária em grande parte a uma grande potência industrial em um curto espaço de tempo. " Os convites Pátria ! ": o poster icónico de chamar cidadãos soviéticos de braços nos primeiros dias da Grande Guerra Patriótica . A política de apaziguamento da Grã-Bretanha e França para Adolf Hitler é anexações "do Ruhr , na Áustria e, finalmente, da Tchecoslováquia pode alargada da Alemanha nazista e colocar uma ameaça de guerra à União Soviética. Ao mesmo tempo o Reich alemão aliadas ao Império do Japão , um rival da URSS no Extremo Oriente e um inimigo aberto na soviético-japonesas Border Wars em 1938-39. Em agosto de 1939, após mais um fracasso das tentativas de estabelecer uma aliança com o nazismo contra-Bretanha e França, o governo soviético decidiu celebrar o Pacto Molotov-Ribbentrop com a Alemanha, prometendo de não-agressão entre os dois países e dividindo suas esferas de influência na Europa Oriental . Enquanto Hitler conquistavam a Polônia, França e outros países que actue em frente única, no início da II Guerra Mundial , a URSS foi capaz de construir seu exército e recuperar alguns dos antigos territórios do Império Russo durante a invasão soviética da Polônia e da Guerra de Inverno . Em 22 de junho de 1941, a Alemanha nazista quebrou o tratado de não agressão e invadiu a União Soviética com a mais poderosa força de invasão e os maiores na história da humanidade, [60] a abertura do maior teatro da Segunda Guerra Mundial . Embora o exército alemão teve um sucesso considerável no início, seu ataque foi interrompido na Batalha de Moscou . Posteriormente, os alemães foram abordados grandes derrotas na primeira Batalha de Stalingrado , no inverno de 1942-43, [61] e em seguida, na Batalha de Kursk , no verão de 1943. Outra falha alemão foi o cerco de Leningrado , em que a cidade foi totalmente bloqueado na terra entre 1941-1944 e pelo finlandês forças alemãs, sofrendo de fome e mais de um milhão de mortes, mas nunca se render. [62] Sob a administração de Stalin e da liderança dos comandantes, como Georgy Zhukov e Rokossovsky Konstantin , as forças soviéticas percorreu a Europa Oriental em 1944-45 e capturado Berlim maio 1945. Em agosto de 1945 o exército soviético derrubado japonesa da China de Manchukuo e Coréia do Norte , contribuindo para a vitória aliada sobre o Japão. Primeiro ser humano a viajar ao espaço, Yuri Gagarin O período 1941-1945 da II Guerra Mundial é conhecido na Rússia como a Grande Guerra Patriótica . Neste conflito, o que incluiu muitas das operações de combate mais letal na história humana, da União Soviética e de civis mortos militares foram 10,6 milhões e 15,9 milhões, respectivamente, [63], representando cerca de um terço de todas as vítimas da II Guerra Mundial . A perda demográfica completo para os povos soviético foi ainda maior. [64] A economia soviética e infra-estrutura sofreu destruição maciça [65] , mas a União Soviética emergiu como um reconhecido superpotência . O Exército Vermelho ocupou a Europa Oriental depois da guerra, incluindo a Alemanha Oriental . Dependentes de governos socialistas foram instalados no bloco oriental estados satélites. Becoming the world's second nuclear weapons power , the USSR established the Warsaw Pact alliance and entered into a struggle for global dominance, known as the Cold War , with the United States and NATO . The Soviet Union exported its Communist ideology to newly formed People's Republic of China and North Korea , and later into Cuba and many other countries. Significant amounts of the Soviet resources were allocated in aid to the other socialist states. [ 66 ] After Stalin's death and a short period of collective rule , new leader Nikita Khrushchev denounced the cult of personality of Stalin and launched the policy of de-Stalinization . Penal labor system was reformed and many prisoners were released and rehabilitated. [ 67 ] The general easement of repressive policies became known later as the Khrushchev thaw . At the same time, tensions with the United States heightened when the two rivals clashed over the deployment of the US Jupiter missiles in Turkey and Soviet missiles in Cuba . Soviet and Russian space station Mir In 1957 the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite , Sputnik 1 , thus starting the Space Age . Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the Earth aboard Vostok 1 manned spacecraft on 12 April 1961 . Following the ousting of voluntarist and erratic Khrushchev in 1964, another period of collective rule ensued, until Leonid Brezhnev became the leader. The era of 1970s and the early 1980s was designated later as the Era of Stagnation , a period when the economic growth slowed and social policies became static. The Kosygin reform , aimed into partial decentralization of the Soviet economy and shifting the emphasis from heavy industry and weapons to light industry and consumer goods , was stifled by the conservative Communist leadership. In 1979 the Soviet forces entered Afghanistan at the request of its communist government. The occupation drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results. Ultimately the Soviet Army was withdrawn from Afghanistan in 1989 because of international opposition, persistent anti-Soviet guerilla warfare (enhanced by the US), and a lack of support from Soviet citizens. From 1985 onwards, the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize the country and make it more democratic . However, this led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements. Prior to 1991, the Soviet economy was the second largest in the world, [ 68 ] but during its last years it was afflicted by shortages of goods in grocery stores, huge budget deficits, and explosive growth in money supply leading to inflation. [ 69 ] In August 1991, an unsuccessful military coup , directed against Gorbachev and aimed at preserving the Soviet Union, instead led to its collapse and the end of socialist rule. The USSR was dissolved into 15 post-Soviet states in December 1991. Federação Russa Main article: History of post-Soviet Russia Moscow International Business Center under construction Boris Yeltsin was elected the President of Russia in June 1991, in the first direct presidential election in Russian history. During and after the Soviet disintegration, wide-ranging reforms including privatisation and market and trade liberalization were being undertaken, [ 70 ] including the radical changes along the lines of " shock therapy " as recommended by the United States and International Monetary Fund . [ 71 ] All this resulted in a major economy crisis, characterized by 50% decline of both GDP and industrial output between 1990-95. [ 70 ] [ 72 ] The privatization largely shifted control of enterprises from state agencies to individuals with inside connections in the government system. Many of the newly rich businesspeople took billions in cash and assets outside of the country in an enormous capital flight . [ 73 ] The depression of state and economy led to the collapse of social services; the birth rate plummeted while the death rate skyrocketed. Millions plunged into poverty, from 1.5% level of poverty in the late Soviet era, to 39–49% by mid-1993. [ 74 ] The 1990s saw extreme corruption and lawlessness, rise of criminal gangs and violent crime. [ 75 ] The 1990s were plagued by armed conflicts in the Northern Caucasus , both local ethnic skirmishes and separatist Islamist insurrections. Since the Chechen separatists had declared independence in the early 1990s, an intermittent guerrilla war was fought between the rebel groups and the Russian military. Terrorist attacks against civilians carried out by separatists, most notably the Moscow theater hostage crisis and Beslan school siege , caused hundreds of deaths and drew worldwide attention. Russia took up the responsibility for settling the USSR's external debts, even though its population made up just half of the population of the USSR at the time of its dissolution. [ 76 ] High budget deficits caused the 1998 Russian financial crisis [ 77 ] and resulted in further GDP decline. [ 70 ] On 31 December 1999 President Yeltsin resigned, handing the post to the recently appointed Prime Minister, Vladimir Putin , who then won the 2000 presidential election . Putin suppressed the Chechen insurgency , although sporadic violence still occurs throughout the Northern Caucasus. High oil prices and initially weak currency followed by increasing domestic demand, consumption and investments has helped the economy grow for nine straight years, improving the standard of living and increasing Russia's influence on the world stage. [ 78 ] While many reforms made during the Putin presidency have been generally criticized by Western nations as un-democratic, [ 79 ] Putin's leadership over the return of order, stability, and progress has won him widespread popularity in Russia. [ 80 ] On 2 March 2008, Dmitry Medvedev was elected President of Russia , whilst Putin became Prime Minister . Política Main articles: Politics of Russia and Government of Russia Moscow Kremlin , the working residence of the President of Russia According to the Constitution of Russia , the country is a federation and semi-presidential republic , wherein the President is the head of state [ 81 ] and the Prime Minister is the head of government . The Russian Federation is fundamentally structured as a multi-party representative democracy , with the federal government composed of three branches: Legislative : The bicameral Federal Assembly , made up of the 450-member State Duma and the 176-member Federation Council , adopts federal law , declares war , approves treaties, has the power of the purse and the power of impeachment of the President. Executive : The President is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law, and appoints the Cabinet and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies. Judiciary : The Constitutional Court , Supreme Court , Supreme Court of Arbitration and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the President, interpret laws and can overturn laws they deem unconstitutional . The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term, but not for a third consecutive term). [ 82 ] Ministries of the government are composed of the Premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister (whereas the appointment of the latter requires the consent of the State Duma). Leading political parties in Russia include United Russia , the Communist Party , the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia , and Fair Russia . Western observers have raised questions as to how much of Russia's political system corresponds to Western liberal democratic ideals. Academics have often complained about the difficulty of classifying Russia's political system. According Steve White, during the Putin presidency Russia made clear that it had no intention of establishing a "second edition" of the American or British political system, but rather a system that was closer to Russia's own traditions and circumstances. [ 83 ] Richard Sakwa wrote that the Russian government is undoubtedly considered legitimate by the great majority of the Russian people and seeks to deliver a set of public goods without appealing to extra-democratic logic to achieve them, but whether the system was becoming an illiberal or delegative democracy was more contentious. [ 84 ] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Russia Leaders of the BRIC nations in 2008: (lr) Manmohan Singh of India, Dmitry Medvedev of Russia, Hu Jintao of China and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil. The Russian Federation is recognized in international law as successor state of the former Soviet Union . [ 19 ] Russia continues to implement the international commitments of the USSR, and has assumed the USSR's permanent seat in the UN Security Council , membership in other international organizations, the rights and obligations under international treaties, and property and debts. Russia has a multifaceted foreign policy. As of 2009, it maintains diplomatic relations with 191 countries and has 144 embassies . The foreign policy is determined by the President and implemented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia . [ 85 ] As the successor to a former superpower, Russia's geopolitical status has been often debated, particularly in relation to unipolar and multipolar views on the global political system. While Russia is commonly accepted to be a great power , in recent years it has been characterized by a number of world leaders, [ 86 ] [ 87 ] scholars, [ 88 ] commentators and politicians [ 89 ] as a currently reinstating or potential superpower . [ 90 ] However, such a characterization has been disputed by others. [ 91 ] [ 92 ] An important aspect of Russia's relations with the West is the criticism of Russia's political system and human rights management by the Western governments, the mass media and the leading democracy and human rights watchdogs. In particular, such organisations as the Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch consider Russia to have not enough democratic attributes and to allow few political rights and civil liberties to its citizens. [ 93 ] [ 94 ] US-funded international organization Freedom House ranks Russia as "not free", citing "carefully engineered elections" and "absence" of debate. [ 95 ] Russian authorities dismiss these claims and especially criticise Freedom House . The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia has called the 2006 Freedom in the World Report "prefabricated", stating that the human rights issues have been turned into a political weapon in particular by the US The ministry also claims that such organizations as Freedom House and Human Rights Watch use the same scheme of voluntary extrapolation of "isolated facts that of course can be found in any country" into "dominant tendencies" . [ 96 ] Member states, observers and partners of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation . As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council, Russia plays a major role in maintaining international peace and security. The country participates in the Quartet on the Middle East and the Six-party talks with North Korea . Russia is a member of the Group of Eight (G8) industrialized nations, the Council of Europe , OSCE and APEC . Russia usually takes a leading role in regional organizations such as the CIS , EurAsEC , CSTO , and the SCO . [ 97 ] Former President Vladimir Putin had advocated a strategic partnership with close integration in various dimensions including establishment of EU-Russia Common Spaces . [ 98 ] Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia has developed a friendlier, albeit volatile relationship with NATO . The NATO-Russia Council was established in 2002 to allow the 26 Allies and Russia to work together as equal partners to pursue opportunities for joint collaboration. [ 99 ] Russia maintains strong and positive relations with other BRIC countries . In recent years, the country has sought to strengthen ties especially with the People's Republic of China by signing the Treaty of Friendship as well as building the Trans-Siberian oil pipeline geared toward growing Chinese energy needs. [ 100 ] Military Main article: Armed Forces of the Russian Federation 2010 Moscow Victory Day Parade . The Russian military is divided into the Ground Forces , Navy , and Air Force . There are also three independent arms of service: Strategic Rocket Forces , Military Space Forces , and the Airborne Troops . In 2006, the military had 1.037 million personnel on active duty. [ 101 ] It is mandatory for all male citizens aged 18–27 to be drafted for a year of service in Armed Forces. [ 78 ] Russia has the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons in the world. It has the second largest fleet of ballistic missile submarines and is the only country apart from the US with a modern strategic bomber force. [ 20 ] [ 102 ] Russia's tank force is the largest in the world, its surface navy and air force are among the strongest. The country has a large and fully indigenous arms industry , producing most of its own military equipment with only few types of weapons imported. Russia is the world's top supplier of arms, a spot it has held since 2001, accounting for around 30% of worldwide weapons sales [ 103 ] and exporting weapons to about 80 countries. [ 104 ] Official government military spending for 2008 was $58 billion, the fifth largest in the world , though various sources have estimated Russia's military expenditures to be considerably higher. [ 101 ] [ 105 ] Currently, a major equipment upgrade worth about $200 billion is on its way between 2006 and 2015. [ 106 ] Divisões administrativas Main article: Subdivisions of Russia Map of the federal subjects of the Russian Federation. Federal subjects The Russian Federation comprises 83 federal subjects . [ 107 ] These subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council . [ 108 ] However, they differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy. 46 oblasts (provinces): most common type of federal subjects, with federally appointed governor and locally elected legislature. 21 republics : nominally autonomous; each has its own constitution, president, and parliament. Republics are allowed to establish their own official language alongside Russian but are represented by the federal government in international affairs. Republics are meant to be home to specific ethnic minorities. 9 krais (territories): essentially the same as oblasts. The "territory" designation is historic, originally given to frontier regions and later also to administrative divisions that comprised autonomous okrugs or autonomous oblasts. 4 autonomous okrugs (autonomous districts): originally autonomous entities within oblasts and krais created for ethnic minorities, their status was elevated to that of federal subjects in the 1990s. With the exception of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug , all autonomous okrugs are still administratively subordinated to a krai or an oblast of which they are a part. 1 autonomous oblast (the Jewish Autonomous Oblast ): originally autonomous oblasts were administrative units subordinated to krais. In 1990, all of them except the Jewish AO were elevated in status to that of a republic. 2 federal cities (Moscow and St. Petersburg): major cities that function as separate regions. Federal districts Federal subjects are grouped into 8 federal districts , each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia. [ 109 ] Unlike the federal subjects, the federal districts are not a subnational level of government, but are a level of administration of the federal government. Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are primarily responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with the federal laws. Geografia Main articles: Geography of Russia and Russian explorers The topography of Russia Russia is the largest country in the world ; its total area is 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi). There are 23 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Russia , 40 UNESCO biosphere reserves , [ 110 ] 40 national parks and 101 nature reserve . It lies between latitudes 41° and 82° N , and longitudes 19° E and 169° W . Russia has a wide natural resource base, including major deposits of timber , petroleum, natural gas , coal, ores and other mineral resources. Topografia The two widest separated points in Russia are about 8,000 km (4,971 mi) apart along a geodesic line. These points are: the boundary with Poland on a 60 km (37 mi) long Vistula Spit separating the Gdańsk Bay from the Vistula Lagoon ; and the farthest southeast of the Kuril Islands . The points which are furthest separated in longitude are 6,600 km (4,101 mi) apart along a geodesic line. These points are: in the west, the same spit; in the east, the Big Diomede Island . The Russian Federation spans 9 time zones . Mount Elbrus , the highest point of the Caucasus , Russia and Europe Most of Russia consists of vast stretches of plains that are predominantly steppe to the south and heavily forested to the north, with tundra along the northern coast. Russia possesses 10% of the world's arable land . [ 111 ] Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus (containing Mount Elbrus , which at 5,642 m (18,510 ft) is the highest point in both Russia and Europe) and the Altai (containing Mount Belukha , which at the 4,506 m (14,783 ft) is the highest point of Siberia outside of the Russian Far East ); and in the eastern parts, such as the Verkhoyansk Range or the volcanoes of Kamchatka Peninsula (containing Klyuchevskaya Sopka , which at the 4,750 m (15,584 ft) is the highest active volcano in Eurasia as well as the highest point of Asian Russia ). The Ural Mountains , rich in mineral resources, form a north-south range that divides Europe and Asia. Russia has an extensive coastline of over 37,000 km (22,991 mi) along the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, as well as along the Baltic Sea , Sea of Azov , Black Sea and Caspian Sea . [ 78 ] The Barents Sea , White Sea , Kara Sea , Laptev Sea , East Siberian Sea , Chukchi Sea , Bering Sea , Sea of Okhotsk , and the Sea of Japan are linked to Russia via the Arctic and Pacific. Russia's major islands and archipelagos include Novaya Zemlya , the Franz Josef Land , the Severnaya Zemlya , the New Siberian Islands , Wrangel Island , the Kuril Islands , and Sakhalin . The Diomede Islands (one controlled by Russia, the other by the US) are just 3 km (1.9 mi) apart, and Kunashir Island is about 20 km (12.4 mi) from Hokkaidō , Japan. Central Russian Upland near Zaraysk , Moscow Oblast Russia has thousands of rivers and inland bodies of water providing it with one of the world's largest surface water resources . The largest and most prominent of Russia's bodies of fresh water is Lake Baikal , the world's deepest, purest, oldest and most capacious freshwater lake. [ 112 ] Baikal alone contains over one fifth of the world's fresh surface water. [ 11 ] Other major lakes include Ladoga and Onega , two of the largest lakes in Europe . Russia is second only to Brazil in volume of the total renewable water resources . Of the country's 100,000 rivers, [ 113 ] the Volga is the most famous, not only because it is the longest river in Europe , but also because of its major role in Russian history. [ 78 ] The Siberian rivers Ob , Yenisey , Lena and Amur are among the very longest rivers in the world . Climate Main article: Climate of Russia Taiga forest in winter, Arkhangelsk Oblast The enormous size of Russia and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental climate , which is prevalent in all parts of the country except for the tundra and the extreme southeast. Mountains in the south obstruct the flow of warm air masses from the Indian Ocean , while the plain of the west and north makes the country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences. [ 114 ] Most of Northern European Russia and Siberia has a subarctic climate , with extremely severe winters in the inner regions of Northeast Siberia (mostly the Sakha Republic , where the Northern Pole of Cold is located with the record low temperature of −71.2 °C/−96.2 °F), and more moderate elsewhere. The strip of land along the shore of the Arctic Ocean, as well as the Russian Arctic islands , have a polar climate . The coastal part of Krasnodar Krai on the Black Sea , most notably in Sochi , possesses a humid subtropical climate with mild and wet winters. Winter is dry compared to summer in many regions of East Siberia and the Far East, while other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons. Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow . The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some areas of southernmost Siberia, possesses a semi-arid climate . A birch forest in Novosibirsk . Birch is a national tree of Russia. Throughout much of the territory there are only two distinct seasons—winter and summer; spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low temperatures and extremely high. [ 114 ] The coldest month is January (February on the coastline), the warmest usually is July. Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east. Summers can be quite hot, even in Siberia. [ 115 ] The continental interiors are the driest areas. Biodiversity Main articles: Ecoregions of Russia , Mammals of Russia , and Birds of Russia The Brown bear is a popular personification of Russia , particularly in the West From north to south the East European Plain , also known as Russian Plain , is clad sequentially in Arctic tundra , coniferous forest ( taiga ), mixed and broad-leaf forests , grassland ( steppe ), and semi-desert (fringing the Caspian Sea), as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate. Siberia supports a similar sequence but is largely taiga. Russia has the world's largest forest reserves , known as "the lungs of Europe" , [ 116 ] second only to the Amazon Rainforest in the amount of carbon dioxide it absorbs. There are 266 mammal species and 780 bird species in Russia. A total of 415 animal species have been included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation as of 1997 [ 117 ] and are now protected. Economy Main articles: Economy of Russia and Timeline of the Russian economy Russia has a market economy with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas. It has the 10th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the 6th largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Since the turn of the 21st century, higher domestic consumption and greater political stability have bolstered economic growth in Russia. The country ended 2008 with its ninth straight year of growth, averaging 7% annually. Growth was primarily driven by non-traded services and goods for the domestic market, as opposed to oil or mineral extraction and exports. [ 78 ] The average salary in Russia was $640 per month in early 2008, up from $80 in 2000. [ 118 ] Approximately 13.7% of Russians lived below the national poverty line in 2010, [ 119 ] significantly down from 40% in 1998 at the worst of the post-Soviet collapse. [ 74 ] Unemployment in Russia was at 6% in 2007, down from about 12.4% in 1999. [ 120 ] The middle class has grown from just 8 million persons in 2000 to 55 million persons in 2006. [ 121 ] Russian economy since the end of the Soviet Union Oil, natural gas, metals, and timber account for more than 80% of Russian exports abroad. [ 78 ] Since 2003, however, exports of natural resources started decreasing in economic importance as the internal market strengthened considerably. Despite higher energy prices, oil and gas only contribute to 5.7% of Russia's GDP and the government predicts this will drop to 3.7% by 2011. [ 122 ] Oil export earnings allowed Russia to increase its foreign reserves from $12 billion in 1999 to $597.3 billion on 1 August 2008, the third largest foreign exchange reserves in the world. [ 123 ] The macroeconomic policy under Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin was prudent and sound, with excess income being stored in the Stabilization Fund of Russia . [ 124 ] In 2006, Russia repaid most of its formerly massive debts, [ 125 ] leaving it with one of the lowest foreign debts among major economies . [ 126 ] The Stabilization Fund helped Russia to come out out of the global financial crisis in a much better state than many experts had expected. [ 124 ] A simpler, more streamlined tax code adopted in 2001 reduced the tax burden on people and dramatically increased state revenue. [ 127 ] Russia has a flat tax rate of 13 percent. This ranks it as the country with the second most attractive personal tax system for single managers in the world after the United Arab Emirates . [ 128 ] According to Bloomberg , Russia is considered well ahead of most other resource-rich countries in its economic development, with a long tradition of education, science, and industry. [ 129 ] The country has more higher education graduates than any other country in Europe. [ 130 ] The economic development of the country has been uneven geographically with the Moscow region contributing a very large share of the country's GDP. [ 131 ] Another problem is modernisation of infrastructure , ageing and inadequate after years of being neglected in 1990s; the government has said $1 trillion will be invested in development of infrastructure by 2020. [ 132 ] Agriculture Main articles: Agriculture in Russia and Fishing industry in Russia Rye Fields , by Ivan Shishkin . Russia is the world's top producer of rye , barley , buckwheat , oats and sunflower seed , and one of the largest producers and exporters of wheat . The total area of cultivated land in Russia was estimated as 1,237,294 km 2 in 2005, the fourth largest in the world. [ 133 ] In 1999–2009, Russia's agriculture demonstrated steady growth, [ 134 ] and the country turned from a grain importer to the third largest grain exporter after EU and USA. [ 135 ] The production of meat has grown from 6,813,000 tonnes in 1999 to 9,331,000 tonnes in 2008, and continues to grow. [ 136 ] This restoration of agriculture was supported by credit policy of the government, helping both individual farmers and large privatized corporate farms, that once were Soviet kolkhozes and still own the significant share of agricultural land. [ 137 ] While large farms concentrate mainly on the production of grain and husbandry products, small private household plots produce most of the country's yield of potatoes, vegetables and fruits. [ 138 ] With access to three of the world's oceans—the Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific—Russian fishing fleets are a major contributor to the world's fish supply . The total capture of fish was at 3,191,068 tons in 2005. [ 139 ] Both exports and imports of fish and sea products grew significantly in the recent years, reaching correspondingly $2,415 and $2,036 millions in 2008. [ 140 ] Energia Main articles: Energy in Russia and Nuclear power in Russia Russia is a key oil and gas supplier to much of Europe. In recent years, Russia has frequently been described in the media as an energy superpower . [ 141 ] [ 142 ] The country has the world's largest natural gas reserves , [ 143 ] the 8th largest oil reserves , [ 144 ] and the second largest coal reserves . [ 145 ] Russia is the world's leading natural gas exporter [ 146 ] and leading natural gas producer , [ 147 ] while also the second largest oil exporter [ 148 ] and largest oil producer , [ 149 ] though Russia interchanges the latter status with Saudi Arabia from time to time. On January 1, 2011, Russia said it had begun scheduled oil shipments to China , with the plan to increase the rate up to 300,000 barrels per day in 2011. [ 150 ] Russia is the 3rd largest electricity producer in the world [ 151 ] and the 5th largest renewable energy producer , the latter due to the well-developed hydroelectricity production in the country. [ 152 ] Large cascades of hydropower plants are built in European Russia along big rivers like Volga . The Asian part of Russia also features a number of major hydropower stations, however the gigantic hydroelectric potential of Siberia and the Russian Far East largely remains unexploited. Russia was the first country to develop civilian nuclear power and to construct the world's first nuclear power plant . Currently the country is the 4th largest nuclear energy producer , [ 153 ] with all nuclear power in Russia being managed by Rosatom State Corporation. The sector is rapidly developing, with an aim of increasing the total share of nuclear energy from current 16.9% to 23% by 2020. The Russian government plans to allocate 127 billion rubles ($5.42 billion) to a federal program dedicated to the next generation of nuclear energy technology. About 1 trillion rubles ($42.7 billion) is to be allocated from the federal budget to nuclear power and industry development before 2015. [ 154 ] Transport Main articles: Transport in Russia , History of rail transport in Russia , and Rail transport in Russia The marker for kilometre 9288, at the end of the Trans-Siberian Railway in Vladivostok . Railway transport in Russia is mostly under the control of the state-run Russian Railways monopoly. The company accounts for over 3.6% of Russia's GDP and handles 39% of the total freight traffic (including pipelines) and more than 42% of passenger traffic. [ 155 ] The total length of common-used railway tracks exceeeds 85,500 km, [ 155 ] second only to the US Over 44,000 km of tracks are electrified , [ 156 ] which is the largest number in the world, and additionally there are more than 30,000 km of industrial non-common carrier lines. Railways in Russia, unlike in the most of the world, use broad gauge of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 5 ⁄ 6 in) , with the exception of 957 km on Sakhalin Island using narrow gauge of 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) . The most renown railway in Russia is Trans-Siberian ( Transsib ), spanning a record 7 time zones and serving the longest single continuous services in the world, Moscow- Vladivostok (9,259 km, 5,753 mi), Moscow– Pyongyang (10,267 km, 6,380 mi) [ 157 ] and Kiev –Vladivostok (11,085 km, 6,888 mi). [ 158 ] As of 2006 Russia had 933,000 km of roads , of which 755,000 were paved. [ 159 ] Some of these make up the Russian federal motorway system . With a large land area the road density is the lowest of all the G8 and BRIC countries. [ 160 ] 102,000 km of inland waterways in Russia mostly go by natural rivers or lakes. In the European part of the country the network of channels connects the basins of major rivers. Russia's capital, Moscow, is sometimes called "the port of the five seas" , due to its waterway connections to the Baltic , White , Caspian , Azov and Black Seas . Major sea ports of Russia include Rostov-on-Don on the Azov Sea, Novorossiysk on the Black Sea, Astrakhan and Makhachkala on the Caspian, Kaliningrad and St Petersburg on the Baltic, Arkhangelsk on the White Sea, Murmansk on the Barents Sea, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Vladivostok on the Pacific Ocean. In 2008 the country owned 1448 merchant marine ships. The world's only fleet of nuclear icebreakers advances the economic exploitation of the Arctic continental shelf of Russia and the development of sea trade through the Northern Sea Route between Europe and East Asia. Yamal , one of Russia's nuclear icebreakers ( Gallery ). By total length of pipelines Russia is second only to the US Currently many new pipeline projects are being realized, including Nord Stream and South Stream natural gas pipelines to Europe, and ESPO oil pipeline to the Russian Far East and China. Russia has 1216 airports, [ 161 ] the busiest being Sheremetyevo , Domodedovo , and Vnukovo in Moscow, and Pulkovo in St Petersburg. The total length of airlines in Russia exceeds 600,000 km. [ 162 ] Typically, major Russian cities have well-developed and diverse systems of public transport , with the most common varieties of exploited vehicles being bus, trolleybus and tram . Seven Russian cities, namely Moscow , Saint Petersburg , Nizhny Novgorod , Novosibirsk , Samara , Yekaterinburg and Kazan , have undeground metros, while Volgograd features a metrotram . Total length of metros in Russia is 465.4 km. Moscow Metro and Saint Petersburg Metro are the oldest in Russia, opened in 1935 and 1955 respectively. These two are among the fastest and busiest metro systems in the world, and are famous for rich decorations and unique designs of their stations, which is a common tradition on Russian metros and railways. Science and technology Main articles: Science and technology in Russia , Russian scientists , Russian inventors , and Russian inventions Science and technology in Russia blossomed since the Age of Enlightenment , when Peter the Great founded the Russian Academy of Sciences and Saint Petersburg State University , and polymath Mikhail Lomonosov established the Moscow State University , paving the way for a strong native tradition in learning and innovation. In the 19th and 20th centuries the country produced a large number of notable scientists and inventors . Mikhail Lomonosov , polymath scientist, inventor, poet and artist The Russian physics school began with Lomonosov who proposed the law of conservation of matter preceding the energy conservation law . Russian discoveries and inventions in physics include the electric arc , electrodynamical Lenz's law , space groups of crystals , photoelectric cell , Cherenkov radiation , electron paramagnetic resonance , heterotransistors and 3D holography . Lasers and masers were co-invented by Nikolai Basov and Alexander Prokhorov , while the idea of tokamak for controlled nuclear fusion was introduced by Igor Tamm , Andrei Sakharov and Lev Artsimovich , leading eventually the modern international ITER project, where Russia is a party. Since the time of Nikolay Lobachevsky (a Copernicus of Geometry who pioneered the non-Euclidean geometry ) and a prominent tutor Pafnuty Chebyshev , the Russian mathematical school became one of the most influential in the world. [ 163 ] Chebyshev's students included Aleksandr Lyapunov , who founded the modern stability theory , and Andrey Markov who invented the Markov chains . In the 20th century Soviet mathematicians, such as Andrey Kolmogorov , Israel Gelfand and Sergey Sobolev , made major contributions to various areas of mathematics. Nine Soviet/Russian mathematicians were awarded with Fields Medal , a most prestigious award in mathematics. Recently Grigori Perelman was offered the first ever Clay Millennium Prize Problems Award for his final proof of the Poincaré conjecture in 2002. [ 164 ] Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleev invented the Periodic table , the main framework of modern chemistry . Aleksandr Butlerov was one of the creators of the theory of chemical structure , playing a central role in organic chemistry . Russian biologists include Dmitry Ivanovsky who discovered viruses , Ivan Pavlov who was the first to experiment with the classical conditioning , and Ilya Mechnikov who was a pioneer researcher of the immune system and probiotics . Many Russian scientists and inventors were émigrés , like Igor Sikorsky , who built the first airliners and modern-type helicopters; Vladimir Zworykin , often called the father of TV ; chemist Ilya Prigogine , noted for his work on dissipative structures and complex systems ; Nobel Prize -winning economists Simon Kuznets and Wassily Leontief ; physicist Georgiy Gamov (an author of the Big Bang theory) and social scientist Pitirim Sorokin . Many foreigners worked in Russia for a long time, like Leonard Euler and Alfred Nobel . Soyuz TMA-2 is launched from Baikonur , Kazakhstan carrying one of the first resident crews to the International Space Station . Russian inventions include the arc welding by Nikolay Benardos , further developed by Nikolay Slavyanov , Konstantin Khrenov and other Russian engineers. Gleb Kotelnikov invented the knapsack parachute , while Evgeniy Chertovsky introduced the pressure suit . Alexander Lodygin and Pavel Yablochkov were pioneers of electric lighting , and Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky introduced the first three-phase electric power systems, widely used today. Sergei Lebedev invented the first commercially viable and mass-produced type of synthetic rubber . The first ternary computer , Setun , was developed by Nikolay Brusentsov , Russian achievements in the field of space technology and space exploration are traced back to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky , the father of theoretical austronautics. [ 165 ] His works had inspired leading Soviet rocket engineers, such as Sergey Korolyov , Valentin Glushko and many others who contributed to the success of the Soviet space program on early stages of the Space Race and beyond. In 1957 the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite , Sputnik 1 , was launched; in 1961 the first human trip into space was successfully made by Yury Gagarin ; and many other Soviet and Russian space exploration records ensued, including the first spacewalk performed by Alexey Leonov , the first space exploration rover Lunokhod-1 and the first space station Salyut 1 . Nowadays Russia is the largest satellite launcher [ 166 ] and the only provider of transport for space tourism services. In the 20th century a number of prominent Soviet aerospace engineers , inspired by the fundamental works of Nikolai Zhukovsky , Sergei Chaplygin and others, designed many hundreds of models of military and civilian aircraft and founded a number of KBs ( Construction Bureaus ) that now constitute the bulk of Russian United Aircraft Corporation . Famous Russian aircrafts include the civilian Tu -series, Su and MiG fighter aircrafts , Ka and Mi -series helicopters; many Russian aircraft models are on the list of most produced aircraft in history. Famous Russian battle tanks include T-34 , the best tank design of World War II, [ 167 ] and further tanks of T-series, including the most produced tank in history, T-54/55 . [ 168 ] The AK-47 and AK-74 by Mikhail Kalashnikov constitute the most widely used type of assault rifle throughout the world—so much so that more AK-type rifles have been manufactured than all other assault rifles combined. [ 169 ] With all these achievements, however, since the late Soviet era Russia was lagging behind the West in a number of technologies, mostly those related to energy conservation and consumer goods production. The crisis of 1990-s led to the drastic reduction of the state support for science and a brain drain migration from Russia. In 2000-s, on the wave of a new economic boom, the situation in the Russian science and technology has improved, and the government launched a campaign aimed into modernisation and innovation . Russian President Dmitry Medvedev formulated top 5 priorities for the country's technological development: efficient energy use , IT (including both common products and the products combined with space technology ), nuclear energy and pharmaceuticals . [ 170 ] Currently Russia is completing GLONASS (the only global satellite navigation system apart from American GPS ), as well as developing its own fifth-generation jet fighter and constructing the first serial mobile nuclear plant . Demographics Main article: Demographics of Russia Ethnic composition (2002) [ 171 ] Russians 79.8% Tatars 3.8% Ucranianos 2.0% Bashkirs 1,2% Chuvash 1,1% Chechenos 0.9% Armenians 0,8% Other/unspecified 10,4% Population (in millions) 1950–1991 of Russian SFSR in USSR , 1991 – 1 January 2010 of Russian Federation. Ethnic Russians comprise 79.8% of the country's population; however the Russian Federation is also home to several sizeable minorities. In total, 160 different other ethnic groups and indigenous peoples live within its borders. [ 172 ] Though Russia's population is comparatively large, its density is low because of the country's enormous size. Population is densest in European Russia , near the Ural Mountains , and in southwest Siberia . 73% of the population lives in urban areas while 27% in rural ones. [ 173 ] The total population is 141,927,297 people as of 1 January 2010. [ 3 ] Russian population peaked at 148,689,000 in 1991, just before the breakup of the Soviet Union . It began to experience a rapid decline starting in the mid-90s. [ 174 ] The decline has slowed to near stagnation in recent years due to reduced death rates , increased birth rates and increased immigration . [ 175 ] In 2009 Russia recorded annual population growth for the first time in 15 years, with total growth of 10,500. [ 175 ] 279,906 migrants arrived to the Russian Federation the same year, of which 93% came from CIS countries. [ 175 ] The number of Russian emigrants steadily declined from 359,000 in 2000 to 32,000 in 2009. [ 175 ] There are also an estimated 10 million illegal immigrants from the ex-Soviet states in Russia. [ 176 ] Roughly 116 million ethnic Russians live in Russia [ 172 ] and about 20 million more live in other former republics of the Soviet Union, [ 177 ] mostly in Ukraine and Kazakhstan . [ 178 ] Russia's birth-rate is higher than that of most European countries (12.4 births per 1000 people in 2008 [ 175 ] compared to the European Union average of 9.90 per 1000), [ 179 ] while the death rate is substantially higher (in 2009, Russia's death rate was 14.2 per 1000 people [ 175 ] compared to the EU average of 10.28 per 1000). [ 180 ] However, the Russian Ministry of Health and Social Affairs predicts that by 2011 the death rate will equal the birth rate due to increase in fertility and decline in mortality. [ 181 ] The government is implementing a number of programs designed to increase the birth rate and attract more migrants. Monthly child support payments were doubled to US$55, and a one-time payment of US$9,200 was offered to women who had a second child since 2007. [ 182 ] In 2009 Russia saw the highest birth rate since the collapse of the USSR. [ 183 ] [ 175 ] Largest cities view · talk · edit Moscou Saint Petersburg Novosibirsk Yekaterinburg Rank Core City Name in Russian Federal Subject Pop. view · talk · edit Nizhny Novgorod Kazan Samara Omsk 1 Moscow Москва Moscou 10,508,971 2 Saint Petersburg Санкт-Петербург Saint Petersburg 4,600,310 3 Novosibirsk Новосибирск Novosibirsk 1,397,191 4 Yekaterinburg Екатеринбург Sverdlovsk 1,332,264 5 Nizhny Novgorod Нижний Новгород Nizhny Novgorod 1,272,527 6 Kazan Казань Tatarstan 1 136 566 7 Samara Самара Samara 1 135 318 8 Omsk Омск Omsk 1,129,120 9 Chelyabinsk Челябинск Chelyabinsk 1,093,699 10 Rostov-on-Don Ростов-на-Дону Rostov 1,048,991 11 Ufa Уфа Bashkortostan 1,024,842 12 Perm Пермь Perm 985,794 13 Volgograd Волгоград Volgograd 981,909 14 Krasnoyarsk Красноярск Krasnoyarsk 947,801 15 Voronezh Воронеж Voronezh 843,496 16 Saratov Саратов Saratov 830,953 17 Tolyatti Тольятти Samara 720,346 18 Krasnodar Краснодар Krasnodar 710,686 19 Izhevsk Ижевск Udmurtia 611,043 20 Yaroslavl Ярославль Yaroslavl 606,336 Rosstat (2009) [ 184 ] [ 185 ] Idioma Main articles: Russian language and Languages of Russia Countries where the Russian language is spoken. Russia's 160 ethnic groups speak some 100 languages. [ 9 ] According to the 2002 census, 142.6 million people speak Russian, followed by Tatar with 5.3 million and Ukrainian with 1.8 million speakers. [ 186 ] Russian is the only official state language, but the Constitution gives the individual republics the right to make their native language co-official next to Russian. [ 187 ] Despite its wide dispersal, the Russian language is homogeneous throughout Russia. Russian is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken Slavic language . [ 188 ] It belongs to the Indo-European language family and is one of the living members of the East Slavic languages ; the others being Belarusian and Ukrainian (and possibly Rusyn ). Written examples of Old East Slavic ( Old Russian ) are attested from the 10th century onwards. [ 189 ] The Russian Language Center says a quarter of the world's scientific literature is published in Russian. [ 190 ] It is also applied as a means of coding and storage of universal knowledge—60–70% of all world information is published in the English and Russian languages. [ 190 ] Russian is one of the six official languages of the UN . [ 191 ] Religião Main article: Religion in Russia The Temple of All Religions in a multicultural city of Kazan Orthodox Christianity , Islam , Buddhism and Judaism are Russia's traditional religions, legally a part of Russia's "historical heritage". [ 192 ] Estimates of believers widely fluctuate among sources, and some reports put the number of non-believers in Russia at 16–48% of the population. [ 193 ] Traced back to the Christianization of Kievan Rus' in the 10th century, Russian Orthodoxy is the dominant religion in the country; approximately 100 million citizens consider themselves Russian Orthodox Christians. [ 194 ] 95% of the registered Orthodox parishes belong to the Russian Orthodox Church while there are a number of smaller Orthodox Churches . [ 195 ] However, the vast majority of Orthodox believers do not attend church on a regular basis. Smaller Christian denominations such as Catholics, Armenian Gregorians , and various Protestants exist. Estimates of the number of Muslims in Russia range from 7–9 to 15–20 million. [ 196 ] Also there are 3 to 4 million Muslim migrants from the post-Soviet states . [ 197 ] Most Muslims live in the Volga-Ural region , as well as in the Caucasus, Moscow, St. Petersburg and Western Siberia. [ 198 ] Buddhism is traditional for three regions of the Russian Federation: Buryatia , Tuva , and Kalmykia . Some residents of the Siberian and Far Eastern regions, such as Yakutia and Chukotka , practice shamanist , pantheistic , and pagan rites, along with the major religions. Induction into religion takes place primarily along ethnic lines. Slavs are overwhelmingly Orthodox Christian, Turkic speakers are predominantly Muslim, and Mongolic peoples are Buddhists. [ 199 ] Health Main article: Health in Russia A mobile clinic used to provide health care at remote railway stations The Russian Constitution guarantees free, universal health care for all citizens. [ 200 ] In practice, however, free health care is partially restricted due to propiska regime. [ 201 ] While Russia has more physicians, hospitals, and health care workers than almost any other country in the world on a per capita basis, [ 202 ] since the collapse of the Soviet Union the health of the Russian population has declined considerably as a result of social, economic, and lifestyle changes; [ 203 ] the trend has been reversed only in the recent years, with average life expectancy having increased 2.4 years for males and 1.4 years for females between 2006-09. [ 175 ] As of 2009, the average life expectancy in Russia was 62.77 years for males and 74.67 years for females. [ 204 ] The biggest factor contributing to the relatively low male life expectancy for males is a high mortality rate among working-age males from preventable causes (eg, alcohol poisoning, smoking, traffic accidents, violent crime). [ 175 ] As a result of the large gender difference in life expectancy and because of the lasting effect of high casualties in World War II, the gender imbalance remains to this day and there are 0.859 males to every female. [ 78 ] Educação Main article: Education in Russia A school in Moscow. The tower of the Moscow State University is seen at the distance. Russia has a free education system guaranteed to all citizens by the Constitution, [ 205 ] however an entry to higher education is highly competitive. [ 206 ] As a result of great emphasis on science and technology in education, Russian medical, mathematical, scientific, and aerospace research is generally of a high order. [ 207 ] Since 1990 the 11-year school training has been introduced. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free; first tertiary (university level) education is free with reservations: a substantial share of students is enrolled for full pay (many state institutions started to open commercial positions in the last years). [ 208 ] In 2004 state spending for education amounted to 3.6% of GDP, or 13% of consolidated state budget. [ 209 ] The Government allocates funding to pay the tuition fees within an established quota or number of students for each state institution. In the higher education institutions, students are paid a small stipend and provided with free housing. [ 210 ] The oldest and largest Russian universities are Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg State University . In 2000s, in order to create higher education and research institutions of comparable scale in the Russian regions, the government launched the program of establishing the federal universities , mostly by merging the existing large regional universities and research institutes and providing them with a special funding. These new institutions include Southern Federal University , Siberian Federal University , Kazan Volga Federal University , North-Eastern Federal University and Far Eastern Federal University . Culture Main article: Russian culture Folk culture and cuisine Main articles: Russian traditions , Russian jokes , Russian fairy tales , and Russian cuisine The Merchant's Wife by Boris Kustodiev , showcasing the Russian tea culture. There are over 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples in Russia. [ 172 ] Ethnic Russians with their Slavic Orthodox traditions, Tatars and Bashkirs with their Turkic Muslim culture, Buddhist nomadic Buryats and Kalmyks , Shamanistic peoples of the Extreme North and Siberia , highlanders of the Northern Caucasus , Finno-Ugric peoples of the Russian North West and Volga Region all contribute to the cultural diversity of the country. Handicraft , like Dymkovo toy , khokhloma , gzhel and palekh miniature represent an important aspect of Russian folk culture. Ethnic Russian clothes include kaftan , kosovorotka and ushanka for men, sarafan and kokoshnik for women, with lapti and valenki as common shoes. The clothes of Cossacks from Southern Russia include burka and papaha , which they share with the peoples of the Northern Caucasus. Russian cuisine widely uses fish , poultry , mushrooms , berries , and honey . Crops of rye , wheat , barley , and millet provide the ingredients for various breads , pancakes and cereals , as well as for kvass , beer and vodka drinks. Black bread is rather popular in Russia, compared to the rest of the world. Flavourful soups and stews include shchi , borsch , ukha , solyanka and okroshka . Smetana (a heavy sour cream ) is often added to soups and salads. Pirozhki , blini and syrniki are native types of pancakes. Chicken Kiev , pelmeni and shashlyk are popular meat dishes, the last two being of Tatar and Caucasus origin respectively. Other meat dishes include stuffed cabbage rolls ( golubtsy ) usually filled with meat [ 211 ] . Salads include Russian salad , vinaigrette and Dressed Herring . Russia's large number of ethnic groups have distinctive traditions of folk music . Typical ethnic Russian musical instruments are gusli , balalaika , zhaleika and garmoshka . Folk music had great influence on Russian classical composers, and in modern times it is a source of inspiration for a number of popular folk bands , including Melnitsa . Russian folk songs , as well as patriotic Soviet songs , constitute the bulk of repertoire of the world-renown Red Army choir and other popular ensembles. Russians have many traditions , including the washing in banya , a hot steam bath somewhat similar to sauna . [ 39 ] Old Russian folklore takes its roots in the pagan Slavic religion . Many Russian fairy tales and epic bylinas were adaptated for animation films, or for feature movies by the prominent directors like Aleksandr Ptushko ( Ilya Muromets , Sadko ) and Aleksandr Rou ( Morozko , Vasilisa the Beautiful ). Russian poets, including Pyotr Yershov and Leonid Filatov , made a number of well-known poetical interpretations of the classical fairy tales, and in some cases, like that of Alexander Pushkin , also created fully original fairy tale poems of great popularity. Arquitetura Main articles: Russian architecture and Russian architects Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow , the masterpiece of Russian architecture Since Christianization of Kievan Rus' for several ages Russian architecture was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine architecture . Apart from fortifications ( kremlins ), the main stone buildings of ancient Rus' were Orthodox churches with their many domes , often gilded or brightly painted. Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects brought Renaissance trends into Russia since the late 15th century, while the 16th century saw the development of unique tent-like churches [ 212 ] culminating in Saint Basil's Cathedral . By that time the onion dome design was also fully developed. [ 213 ] In the 17th century, the "fiery style" of ornamentation flourished in Moscow and Yaroslavl , gradually paving the way for the Naryshkin baroque of the 1690s. After the reforms of Peter the Great the change of architectural styles in Russia generally followed that in the Western Europe . The 18th-century taste for rococo architecture led to the ornate works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers. The reigns of Catherine the Great and her grandson Alexander I saw the flourishing of Neoclassical architecture , most notably in the capital city of Saint Petersburg . The second half of the 19th century was dominated by the Neo-Byzantine and Russian Revival styles. Prevalent styles of the 20th century were the Art Nouveau , Constructivism , and the Stalin Empire style . In 1955 a new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev , condemned the "excesses" of the former academic architecture, [ 214 ] and the late Soviet era was dominated by plain functionalism in architecture . This helped somewhat to resolve the housing problem, but created a large quantity of buildings of low architectural quality, much in contrast with the previous bright styles. The situation improved in the recent two decades. Many temples demolished in Soviet times were rebuilt, and this process continues along with the restoration of various historical buildings destroyed in World War II. A total of 23,000 Orthodox churches have been rebuilt between 1991-2010, which effectively quadrapled the number of operating churches in Russia. [ 215 ] Visual arts Main article: Russian artists The Trinity icon by Andrei Rublev . Early Russian painting is represented in icons and vibrant frescos , the two genres inherited from Byzantium . As Moscow rose to power, Theophanes the Greek , Dionisius and Andrei Rublev became vital names associated with a distinctly Russian art. The Russian Academy of Arts was created in 1757 [ 216 ] and gave Russian artists an international role and status. Ivan Argunov , Dmitry Levitzky , Vladimir Borovikovsky and other 18th century academicians mostly focused on portrait painting . In the early 19th century, when neoclassicism and romantism flourished, mythological and Biblical themes inspired many prominent painings, notably by Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov . In the mid-19th century the Peredvizhniki ( Wanderers ) group of artists broke with the Academy and initiated a school of art liberated from academic restrictions. [ 217 ] These were mostly realist painters who captured Russian identity in landscapes of wide rivers, forests, and birch clearings, as well as vigorous genre scenes and robust portraits of their contemporaries. Some artists focused on depicting dramatic moments in Russian history, while others turned to social criticism , showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority; critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II . Leading realists include Ivan Shishkin , Arkhip Kuindzhi , Ivan Kramskoi , Vasily Polenov , Isaac Levitan , Vasily Surikov , Viktor Vasnetsov , Ilya Repin and Boris Kustodiev . The turn of the 20th century saw the rise of symbolist painting, represented by Mikhail Vrubel , Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin and Nicholas Roerich . The Russian avant-garde was a large, influential wave of modernist art that flourished in Russia from approximately 1890 to 1930. The term covers many separate, but inextricably related, art movements that occurred at the time; namely neo-primitivism , suprematism , constructivism , rayonism , and Russian Futurism . Notable artists from this era include El Lissitzky , Kazimir Malevich , Wassily Kandinsky , and Marc Chagall . Since 1930s the revolutionary ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged conservative direction of socialist realism . Soviet art produced works that were furiously patriotic and anti-fascist during and after the Great Patriotic War . Multiple war memorials, marked by a great restrained solemnity, were built throughout the country. Soviet artists often combined innovation with socialist realism, notably the sculptors Vera Mukhina , Yevgeny Vuchetich and Ernst Neizvestny . Music and dance Main articles: Music of Russia , Russian ballet , Russian opera , Russian rock , Russian pop , and Russian composers The Snowdance scene from The Nutcracker ballet, composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Music in 19th century Russia was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka along with his followers , who embraced Russian national identity and added religious and folk elements to their compositions, and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and Nikolay Rubinsteins , which was musically conservative. The later tradition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky , one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era , was continued into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff . [ 218 ] World-renown composers of the 20th century included also Alexander Scriabin , Igor Stravinsky , Sergei Prokofiev , Dmitri Shostakovich and Alfred Schnittke . Russian conservatories have turned out generations of famous soloists. Among the best known are violinists David Oistrakh and Gidon Kremer ; cellist Mstislav Rostropovich ; pianists Vladimir Horowitz , Sviatoslav Richter , and Emil Gilels ; and vocalists Fyodor Shalyapin , Galina Vishnevskaya , Anna Netrebko and Dmitry Hvorostovsky . [ 219 ] During the early 20th century, Russian ballet dancers Anna Pavlova and Vaslav Nijinsky rose to fame, and impresario Sergei Diaghilev and his Ballets Russes ' travels abroad profoundly influenced the development of dance worldwide. [ 220 ] Soviet ballet preserved the perfected 19th century traditions, [ 221 ] and the Soviet Union's choreography schools produced many internationally famous stars, including Maya Plisetskaya , Rudolf Nureyev , and Mikhail Baryshnikov . The Bolshoi Ballet in Moscow and the Mariinsky Ballet in St Petersburg remain famous throughout the world. [ 222 ] Modern Russian rock music takes its roots both in the Western rock and roll and heavy metal , and in traditions of the Russian bards of the Soviet era, like Vladimir Vysotsky and Bulat Okudzhava . [ 223 ] Popular Russian rock groups include Mashina Vremeni , DDT , Aquarium , Alisa , Kino , Kipelov , Nautilus Pompilius , Aria , Grazhdanskaya Oborona , Splean and Korol i Shut . Russian pop music developed from what was known in the Soviet times as estrada into full-fledged industry, with some performers gaining wide international recognition, like tATu and Vitas . Literature and philosophy Main articles: Russian literature , Russian philosophy , Russian poets , Russian playwrights , and Russian novelists Leo Tolstoy , novelist and philosopher. Russian literature is considered to be among the most influential and developed in the world, contributing many of the world's most famous literary works. In the 18th century its development was boosted by the works of Mikhail Lomonosov and Denis Fonvizin , and by the early 19th century a modern native tradition had emerged, producing some of the greatest writers of all time. This period, known also as the Golden Age of Russian Poetry , began with Alexander Pushkin , who is considered the founder of modern Russian literature and often described as the "Russian Shakespeare" . [ 224 ] It continued into the 19th century with the poetry of Mikhail Lermontov and Nikolay Nekrasov , dramas of Aleksandr Ostrovsky and Anton Chekhov , and the prose of Nikolai Gogol and Ivan Turgenev . Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky in particular were titanic figures to the point that many literary critics have described one or the other as the greatest novelist of all time. [ 225 ] [ 226 ] By the 1880s the age of the great novelists was over, while short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres. The next several decades became known as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry , when the previously dominant literary realism was replaced by symbolism . Leading authors of this era include poets Valery Bryusov , Vyacheslav Ivanov , Alexander Blok , Nikolay Gumilev and Anna Akhmatova , and novelists Leonid Andreyev , Ivan Bunin , and Maxim Gorky . Russian philosophy blossomed since the 19th century, when it was defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers , advocating the Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles , insisting on developing Russia as unique civilization. The latter group includes Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev , the founders of eurasianism . In its further development Russian philosophy was always marked by deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; Russian cosmism and religious philosophy were other major areas. Notable philosophers of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries include Vladimir Solovyev , Sergei Bulgakov , and Vladimir Vernadsky . Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 many prominent writers and philosophers left the country, including Ivan Bunin , Vladimir Nabokov and Nikolay Berdyayev , while a new generation of talented authors joined together in an effort to create a distinctive working-class culture appropriate for the new Soviet state. In the 1930s censorship over literature was tightened in line with the policy of socialist realism . Since late 1950s the restrictions on literature were eased, and by the 1970s and 1980s, writers were increasingly ignoring the official guidelines. The leading authors of the Soviet era include novelists Yevgeny Zamyatin , Ilf and Petrov , Mikhail Bulgakov and Mikhail Sholokhov , and poets Vladimir Mayakovsky , Yevgeny Yevtushenko , and Andrey Voznesensky . Cinema, animation and media Main articles: Cinema of Russia , Russian animation , and Television in Russia Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in the Washington studio of Russia Today TV Russian and later Soviet cinema was a hotbed of invention in the period immediately following the 1917, resulting in world-renown films such as The Battleship Potemkin by Sergei Eisenstein . [ 227 ] Eisenstein was a student of filmmaker and theorist Lev Kuleshov , who developed the Soviet montage theory of film editing at the world's first film school, the All-Union Institute of Cinematography . Dziga Vertov , whose kino-glaz (“film-eye”) theory—that the camera, like the human eye, is best used to explore real life—had a huge impact on the development of documentary film making and cinema realism. The subsequent state policy of socialist realism somewhat limited creativity, however many Soviet films in this style were artistically successful, like Chapaev , The Cranes Are Flying , and Ballad of a Soldier . [ 227 ] 1960s and 1970s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in the Soviet cinema. Eldar Ryazanov 's and Leonid Gaidai 's comedies of that time were immensely popular, with many of the catch phrases still in use today. In 1961–68 Sergey Bondarchuk directed an Oscar -winning film adaptation of Leo Tolstoy 's epic War and Peace , which was the most expensive film ever made. [ 228 ] In 1969, Vladimir Motyl 's White Sun of the Desert was released, a very popular film in a genre of ostern ; the film is traditionally watched by cosmonauts before any trip into space. [ 229 ] Shukhov Tower in Moscow served for the early radio and TV broadcasting Russian animation dates back to the late Russian Empire times. During Soviet era, Soyuzmultfilm studio was the largest animation producer. Soviet animators developed a great variety of pioneering techniques and aesthetic styles, with prominent directors including Ivan Ivanov-Vano , Fyodor Khitruk and Aleksandr Tatarsky . Many Soviet cartoon heroes, such as the Russian-style Winnie-the-Pooh , cute little Cheburashka , Wolf and Hare from Nu, Pogodi! are iconic images in Russia and many surrounding countries. The late 1980s and 1990s were a period of crisis in Russian cinema and animation. Although Russian filmmakers became free to express themselves, state subsidies were drastically reduced, resulting in fewer films produced. The early years of the 21st century have brought increased viewership and subsequent prosperity to the industry on the back of the economic revival. Production levels are already higher than in Britain and Germany. [ 230 ] Russia's total box-office revenue in 2007 was $565 million, up 37% from the previous year [ 231 ] In 2002 the Russian Ark became the first feature film ever to be shot in a single take. The traditions of Soviet animation were developed recently by such directors as Aleksandr Petrov and studios like Melnitsa Animation . Russia was among the first countries to introduce radio and television . While there were few channels in the Soviet time, in the past two decades many new state and private-owned radio stations and TV channels appeared. In 2005 a state-run English language Russia Today TV started broadcasting, and its Arabic version Rusiya Al-Yaum was launched in 2007. Esportes Main article: Sport in Russia Russian football fans with a gigantic Go Russia! banner, featuring Russian Bear on the background of Russian flag Combining the total medals of Soviet Union and Russia, the country is second among all nations by number of gold medals both at the Summer Olympics and at the Winter Olympics. Soviet and later Russian athletes have always been in the top three for the number of gold medals collected at the Summer Olympics. Soviet gymnasts, track-and-field athletes, weight lifters , wrestlers , boxers, fencers , shooters , cross country skiers , biathletes , speed skaters and figure skaters were consistently among the best in the world, along with Soviet basketball, handball, volleyball and ice hockey players. [ 232 ] The 1980 Summer Olympics were held in Moscow while the 2014 Winter Olympics will be hosted by Sochi . Although ice hockey was only introduced during the Soviet era, the national team managed to win gold at almost all the Olympics and World Championships they contested. Russian players Valery Kharlamov , Sergey Makarov , Vyacheslav Fetisov and Vladislav Tretiak hold four of six positions in the IIHF Team of the Century . [ 233 ] Recently Russia won the 2008 and 2009 IIHF World Championships , overtaking Canada as the world's top ranked ice hockey team. [ 234 ] The Kontinental Hockey League was founded in 2008 as a successor to the Russian Superleague . It is seen as a rival to the NHL and is ranked the top hockey league in Europe as of 2009. [ 235 ] Bandy , known also as the Russian hockey , is another traditionally popular ice sport. [ 236 ] The Soviet Union won all the Bandy World Championships between 1957-79. [ 237 ] Dmitry Medvedev with Russia men's national ice hockey team Along with ice hockey and basketball, association football is one of the most popular sports in modern Russia. The Soviet national team became the first ever European Champions by winning Euro 1960 . In recent years, Russian football, which downgraded in 1990-s, has experienced a revival. Russian clubs CSKA Moscow and Zenit St Petersburg won the UEFA Cup in 2005 and 2008 respectively. The Russian national football team reached the semi-finals of Euro 2008 , losing only to the eventual champions Spain. Russia will host the 2018 FIFA World Cup , with 14 host cities located in the European part of the country and on the Urals. Larisa Latynina , who currently holds a record for most Olympic medals won per person and most gold Olympic medals won by a woman, established the USSR as the dominant force in gymnastics for many years to come. [ 238 ] Today, Russia is leading in rhythmic gymnastics with such stars as Alina Kabayeva , Irina Tschaschina and Yevgeniya Kanayeva . Russian synchronized swimming is the best in the world, with almost all gold medals at Olympics and World Championships having been swept by Russians in recent decades. Figure skating is another popular sport in Russia, especially pair skating and ice dancing . At every Winter Olympics from 1964 until 2006 a Soviet or Russian pair has won gold. Since the end of the Soviet era, tennis has grown in popularity and Russia has produced a number of famous players, including Maria Sharapova , the world's highest paid female athlete. [ 239 ] Chess is a widely popular pastime in Russia; from 1927, Russian grandmasters have held the world chess championship almost continuously. [ 240 ] National holidays and symbols Main articles: Public holidays in Russia and Cultural icons of Russia 2005 Victory Day (9 May) parade on Moscow's Red Square . There are seven public holidays in Russia , [ 241 ] except those always celebrated on Sunday. The New Year is the first in calendar and in popularity. Russian New Year traditions resemble those of the Western Christmas, with New Year Trees and gifts, and Ded Moroz ( Father Frost ) playing the same role as Santa . Orthodox Christmas falls on 7 January, because Russian Orthodox Church still follows the Julian calendar and all Orthodox holidays are 13 days after Catholic ones. Another two major Christian holidays are Easter and Trinity Sunday . Kurban Bayram and Uraza Bayram are celebrated by Russian Muslims . Further Russian public holidays include Defender of the Fatherland Day (23 February), which honors Russian men, especially those serving in the army; International Women's Day (8 March), which combines the traditions of Mother's Day and Valentine's Day ; Spring and Labor Day (1 May); Victory Day (9 May) ; Russia Day (12 June); and Unity Day (4 November), commemorating the popular uprising which expelled the Polish occupation force from Moscow in 1612. Victory Day is the second most popular holiday in Russia; it commemorates the victory over Nazism in the Great Patriotic War . A huge military parade , hosted by the President of Russia , is annually organized in Moscow on Red Square . Similar parades took place in all major Russian cities and cities with the status Hero city or City of Military Glory . Popular non-public holidays include Old New Year (New Year according to Julian Calendar on 14 January), Tatiana Day (students holiday on 25 January), Maslenitsa (an old pagan spring holidaya week before the Great Lent ), Cosmonautics Day (a day of Yury Gagarin 's first ever human trip into space on 12 April), Ivan Kupala Day (another pagan Slavic holiday on 7 July) and Peter and Fevronia Day (taking place on 8 July and being the Russian analogue of Valentine's Day , which focuses, however, on the family love and fidelity). Scarlet Sails celebration on the Neva river in Saint Petersburg . State symbols of Russia include the Byzantine double-headed eagle , combined with St. George of Moscow in the Russian coat of arms . The Russian flag dates from the late Tsardom of Russia period and has been widely used since the time of the Russian Empire . The Russian anthem shares its music with the Soviet Anthem , though not the lyrics. The imperial motto God is with us and the Soviet motto Proletarians of all countries, unite! are now obsolete and no new motto has replaced them. The hammer and sickle and the full Soviet coat of arms are still widely seen in Russian cities as a part of old architectural decorations. The Soviet Red Stars are also encountered, often on military equipment and war memorials. The Red Banner continues to be honored, especially the Banner of Victory of 1945. The Matryoshka doll is a recognizable symbol of Russia, while the towers of Moscow Kremlin and Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow are main Russia's architectural icons. Cheburashka is a mascot of Russian national Olympic team . St. Mary , St. Nicholas , St. Andrew , St. George , St. Alexander Nevsky , St. Sergius of Radonezh and St. Seraphim of Sarov are Russia's patron saints . Chamomile is a national flower , while birch is a national tree . The Russian bear is an animal symbol and a national personification of Russia, though this image has a Western origin and Russians themselves have accepted it only fairly recently. The native Russian national personification is Mother Russia , sometimes called Mother Motherland. Tourism Main article: Tourism in Russia Grand Cascade in Peterhof , a popular tourist destination in Saint Petersburg Tourism in Russia has seen rapid growth since the late Soviet times, first inner tourism and then international tourism as well. Rich cultural heritage and great natural variety place Russia among the most visited countries in the world. Major tourist routes in Russia include a travel around the Golden Ring of ancient cities, cruises on the big rivers like Volga , and long journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway . Most visited destinations in Russia are Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the current and the former capitals of the country. Recognized as World Cities , they feature such world-renown museums as Tretyakov Gallery and Hermitage , famous theaters like Bolshoi and Mariinsky , ornate churches like Saint Basil's Cathedral , Cathedral of Christ the Saviour , Saint Isaac's Cathedral and Church of the Savior on Blood , impressive fortifications like Moscow Kremlin and Peter and Paul Fortress , beautiful squares and streets like Red Square , Palace Square , Tverskaya Street and Nevsky Prospect . Rich palaces and parks are found in the former imperial residences in suburbs of Moscow ( Kolomenskoye , Tsaritsyno ) and St Petersburg ( Peterhof , Strelna , Oranienbaum , Gatchina , Pavlovsk and Tsarskoye Selo ). Moscow displays the Soviet architecture at its best, along with modern scyscrapers , while St Petersburg, nicknamed Venice of the North , boasts of its classical architecture, many rivers, channels and bridges . Matryoshka doll taken apart Kazan , the capital of Tatarstan , shows a mix of Christian Russian and Muslim Tatar cultures. The city has registered a brand The Third Capital of Russia , though a number of other major cities compete for this status, including Novosibirsk , Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod . Typical Russian souvenirs include matryoshka doll and other handicraft , samovars for water heating, ushanka and papaha warm hats, and fur clothes. Russian vodka and caviar are among the food that attracts foreigners. The warm subtropical Black Sea coast of Russia is the site for a number of popular sea resorts, like Sochi , the follow-up host of the 2014 Winter Olympics . The mountains of the Northern Caucasus contain popular ski resorts, including Dombay . The most famous natural destination in Russia is Lake Baikal , the Blue Eye of Siberia . This unique lake, oldest and deepest in the world, [ 112 ] has crystal-clean waters and is surrounded by taiga -covered mountains. Other popular natural destinations include Kamchatka with its volcanoes and geysers, Karelia with its lakes and granite rocks, the snowy Altai Mountains , and the wild steppes of Tyva . See also Russia portal Main article: Outline of Russia Index of Soviet Union-related articles International rankings of Russia Timeline of Russian history Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records Referências ^ "Russian Census of 2002" . 4.1. National composition of population . Federal State Statistics Service . http://www.perepis2002.ru/index.html?id=87 . Retrieved 16 Jan. 2008 . ^ a b "The Russian federation: general characteristics" . Federal State Statistics Service . http://www.gks.ru/scripts/free/1c.exe?XXXX09F.2.1/010000R . Retrieved 5 Apr. 2008 . ^ a b "Federal State Statistics Service of Russia" . http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2010/popul10-Pr.xls . Retrieved 27 Apr. 2010 . ^ "Russian Census of 2010" . Federal State Statistics Service . http://www.perepis-2010.ru/counter.php . 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Retrieved 3 Nov. 2009 . ^ "Russian Bandy Championship, 2006–7 season" . bandy.ru . http://old.rusbandy.ru/content.html@PageID=325 . Obtido 2010/10/03. ^ Bandy at hickoksports.com ^ "Legendary Olympians" . CNN . August 19, 2008 . http://edition.cnn.com/2008/SPORT/07/07/oly.olympians/index.html . ^ Tom Van Riper and Kurt Badenhausen. "Top-Earning Female Athletes" . Forbes . http://www.forbes.com/2008/07/22/women-athletes-endorsements-biz-sports-cx_tvr_kb_0722athletes.html . Retrieved 1 Aug. 2008 . ^ "Chessgames guide to the World Championship" . Chessgames.com . http://www.chessgames.com/wcc.html . Retrieved 2010-10-29 . ^ "Official days off for public holidays in Russia" . Sras.org . http://www.sras.org/russian_holidays . Retrieved 2010-10-29 . Leituras Kanet Roger E., ed. Russian Foreign Policy in the 21st Century (Palgrave Macmillan; 2011) 295 pages; essays by experts Ligações externas Find more about Russia on Wikipedia's sister projects : Definitions from Wiktionary Imagens e media no Commons Recursos de aprendizagem da Wikiversidade As notícias do Wikinews Citações de Wikiquote textos Fonte do Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Russia at the Open Directory Project Governo Official governmental portal (Russian) Chief of State and Cabinet Members Russian News Agency Ria Novosti Informações gerais Russia entry at The World Factbook Russia at UCB Libraries GovPubs Outras Way to Russia. 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